属性

类的变量成员叫做 属性,或者叫 字段,在本文档统一称为 属性 。从 PHP 7.4 开始,属性声明是由关键字 publicprotected 或者 private 开头,然后是类型声明,然后跟一个普通的变量声明来组成。属性中的变量可以初始化,但是初始化的值必须是 常数

有关 publicprotectedprivate 的更多详细信息,请查看访问控制(可见性)

注意:

另一种不推荐的声明类属性的方法是使用 var 关键字,因为它是为了向后兼容 PHP 4。 如果使用,会将其视为 public

在类的成员方法里面,可以用 ->(对象运算符):$this->property(其中 property 是该属性名)这种方式来访问非静态属性。静态属性则是用 ::(双冒号):self::$property 来访问。更多静态属性与非静态属性的区别参见 Static 关键字

当一个方法在类定义内部被调用时,有一个可用的伪变量 $this$this 是一个到主叫对象的引用(通常是该方法所从属的对象,但如果是从第二个对象静态调用时也可能是另一个对象)。

示例 #1 属性声明

<?php
class SimpleClass
{
   public 
$var1 'hello ' 'world';
   public 
$var2 = <<<EOD
hello world
EOD;
   public 
$var3 1+2;
   
// 正确的属性声明
   
public $var4 self::myStaticMethod();
   public 
$var5 $myVar;

   
// 正确的属性声明
   
public $var6 myConstant;
   public 
$var7 = array(truefalse);

   public 
$var8 = <<<'EOD'
hello world
EOD;
}
?>

注意:

更多关于类/对象的处理函数,请查看类/对象函数

类型声明

从 PHP 7.4.0 开始,属性定义可以包含 类型声明 , 但 callable 除外。

示例 #2 类型声明的示例

<?php

class User
{
    public 
int $id;
    public ?
string $name;

    public function 
__construct(int $id, ?string $name)
    {
        
$this->id $id;
        
$this->name $name;
    }
}

$user = new User(1234null);

var_dump($user->id);
var_dump($user->name);

?>

以上例程会输出:

int(1234)
NULL

类型属性必须在访问前初始化,否则会抛出 Error

示例 #3 访问属性

<?php

class Shape
{
    public 
int $numberOfSides;
    public 
string $name;

    public function 
setNumberOfSides(int $numberOfSides): void
    
{
        
$this->numberOfSides $numberOfSides;
    }

    public function 
setName(string $name): void
    
{
        
$this->name $name;
    }

    public function 
getNumberOfSides(): int
    
{
        return 
$this->numberOfSides;
    }

    public function 
getName(): string
    
{
        return 
$this->name;
    }
}

$triangle = new Shape();
$triangle->setName("triangle");
$triangle->setNumberofSides(3);
var_dump($triangle->getName());
var_dump($triangle->getNumberOfSides());

$circle = new Shape();
$circle->setName("circle");
var_dump($circle->getName());
var_dump($circle->getNumberOfSides());
?>

以上例程会输出:

string(8) "triangle"
int(3)
string(6) "circle"

Fatal error: Uncaught Error: Typed property Shape::$numberOfSides must not be accessed before initialization

Readonly properties

As of PHP 8.1.0, a property can be declared with the readonly modifier, which prevents modification of the property after initialization.

示例 #4 Example of readonly properties

<?php
class Test {
   public 
readonly string $prop;
   public function 
__construct(string $prop) {
       
// Legal initialization.
       
$this->prop $prop;
   }
}
$test = new Test("foobar");
// Legal read.
var_dump($test->prop); // string(6) "foobar"
// Illegal reassignment. It does not matter that the assigned value is the same.
$test->prop "foobar";
// Error: Cannot modify readonly property Test::$prop
?>

注意:

The readonly modifier can only be applied to typed properties. A readonly property without type constraints can be created using the mixed type.

注意:

Readonly static properties are not supported.

A readonly property can only be initialized once, and only from the scope where it has been declared. Any other assignment or modification of the property will result in an Error exception.

示例 #5 Illegal initialization of readonly properties

<?php
class Test1 {
    public 
readonly string $prop;
}
$test1 = new Test1;
// Illegal initialization outside of private scope.
$test1->prop "foobar";
// Error: Cannot initialize readonly property Test1::$prop from global scope
?>

注意:

Specifying an explicit default value on readonly properties is not allowed, because a readonly property with a default value is essentially the same as a constant, and thus not particularly useful.

<?php
class Test {
    
// Fatal error: Readonly property Test::$prop cannot have default value
    
public readonly int $prop 42;
}
?>

注意:

Readonly properties cannot be unset() once they are initialized. However, it is possible to unset a readonly property prior to initialization, from the scope where the property has been declared.

Modifications are not necessarily plain assignments, all of the following will also result in an Error exception:

<?php
class Test {
    public function 
__construct(
        public 
readonly int $i 0,
        public 
readonly array $ary = [],
    ) {}
}
$test = new Test;
$test->+= 1;
$test->i++;
++
$test->i;
$test->ary[] = 1;
$test->ary[0][] = 1;
$ref =& $test->i;
$test->=& $ref;
byRef($test->i);
foreach (
$test as &$prop);
?>

However, readonly properties do not preclude interior mutability. Objects (or resources) stored in readonly properties may still be modified internally:

<?php
class Test {
    public function 
__construct(public readonly object $obj) {}
}
$test = new Test(new stdClass);
// Legal interior mutation.
$test->obj->foo 1;
// Illegal reassignment.
$test->obj = new stdClass;
?>

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 9 notes

up
323
Anonymous
9 years ago
In case this saves anyone any time, I spent ages working out why the following didn't work:

class MyClass
{
    private $foo = FALSE;

    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->$foo = TRUE;

        echo($this->$foo);
    }
}

$bar = new MyClass();

giving "Fatal error: Cannot access empty property in ...test_class.php on line 8"

The subtle change of removing the $ before accesses of $foo fixes this:

class MyClass
{
    private $foo = FALSE;

    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->foo = TRUE;

        echo($this->foo);
    }
}

$bar = new MyClass();

I guess because it's treating $foo like a variable in the first example, so trying to call $this->FALSE (or something along those lines) which makes no sense. It's obvious once you've realised, but there aren't any examples of accessing on this page that show that.
up
65
anca at techliminal dot com
6 years ago
You can access property names with dashes in them (for example, because you converted an XML file to an object) in the following way:

<?php
$ref
= new StdClass();
$ref->{'ref-type'} = 'Journal Article';
var_dump($ref);
?>
up
58
Anonymous
10 years ago
$this can be cast to array.  But when doing so, it prefixes the property names/new array keys with certain data depending on the property classification.  Public property names are not changed.  Protected properties are prefixed with a space-padded '*'.  Private properties are prefixed with the space-padded class name...

<?php

class test
{
    public
$var1 = 1;
    protected
$var2 = 2;
    private
$var3 = 3;
    static
$var4 = 4;
   
    public function
toArray()
    {
        return (array)
$this;
    }
}

$t = new test;
print_r($t->toArray());

/* outputs:

Array
(
    [var1] => 1
    [ * var2] => 2
    [ test var3] => 3
)

*/
?>

This is documented behavior when converting any object to an array (see </language.types.array.php#language.types.array.casting> PHP manual page).  All properties regardless of visibility will be shown when casting an object to array (with exceptions of a few built-in objects).

To get an array with all property names unaltered, use the 'get_object_vars($this)' function in any method within class scope to retrieve an array of all properties regardless of external visibility, or 'get_object_vars($object)' outside class scope to retrieve an array of only public properties (see: </function.get-object-vars.php> PHP manual page).
up
16
php at webflips dot net
7 years ago
Heredoc IS valid as of PHP 5.3 and this is documented in the manual at http://php.net/manual/en/language.types.string.php#language.types.string.syntax.heredoc

Only heredocs containing variables are invalid because then it becomes dynamic.
up
28
zzzzBov
11 years ago
Do not confuse php's version of properties with properties in other languages (C++ for example).  In php, properties are the same as attributes, simple variables without functionality.  They should be called attributes, not properties.

Properties have implicit accessor and mutator functionality.  I've created an abstract class that allows implicit property functionality.

<?php

abstract class PropertyObject
{
  public function
__get($name)
  {
    if (
method_exists($this, ($method = 'get_'.$name)))
    {
      return
$this->$method();
    }
    else return;
  }
 
  public function
__isset($name)
  {
    if (
method_exists($this, ($method = 'isset_'.$name)))
    {
      return
$this->$method();
    }
    else return;
  }
 
  public function
__set($name, $value)
  {
    if (
method_exists($this, ($method = 'set_'.$name)))
    {
     
$this->$method($value);
    }
  }
 
  public function
__unset($name)
  {
    if (
method_exists($this, ($method = 'unset_'.$name)))
    {
     
$this->$method();
    }
  }
}

?>

after extending this class, you can create accessors and mutators that will be called automagically, using php's magic methods, when the corresponding property is accessed.
up
-14
Ashley Dambra
7 years ago
Updated method objectThis() to transtypage class array properties or array to stdClass.

Hope it help you.

public function objectThis($array = null) {
    if (!$array) {
        foreach ($this as $property_name => $property_values) {
            if (is_array($property_values) && !empty($property_values)) {
                $this->{$property_name} = $this->objectThis($property_values);
            } else if (is_array($property_values) && empty($property_values)) {
                $this->{$property_name} = new stdClass();
            }
        }
    } else {
        $object = new stdClass();
        foreach ($array as $index => $values) {
            if (is_array($values) && empty($values)) {
                $object->{$index} = new stdClass();
            } else if (is_array($values)) {
                $object->{$index} = $this->objectThis($values);
            } else {
                $object->{$index} = $values;
            }
        }
        return $object;
    }
}
up
-8
Markus Zeller
4 years ago
Accessing a property without any value initialized will give NULL.

class foo
{
  private $bar;

  public __construct()
  {
      var_dump($this->bar); // null
  }
}
up
-18
AshleyDambra at live dot com
7 years ago
Add this method to you class in order to 'transtypage' all the array properties into stdClass();

Hope it help you.

public function objectThis($object = null) {
    if (!$object) {
        foreach ($this as $property_name => $property_values) {
            if (is_array($property_values)) {
                $this->{$property_name} = $this->objectThis($property_values);
            }
        }
    } else {
        $object2 = new stdClass();
        foreach ($object as $index => $values) {
            if (is_array($values)) {
                $object2->{$index} = $this->objectThis($values);
            } else {
                $object2->{$index} = $values;
            }
        }
        return $object2;
    }
}
up
-31
Anonymous
6 years ago
In case this saves anyone any time, I spent ages working out why the following didn't work:

class MyClass
{
    private $foo = FALSE;

    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->$foo = TRUE;

        echo($this->$foo);
    }
}

$bar = new MyClass();

giving "Fatal error: Cannot access empty property in ...test_class.php on line 8"

The subtle change of removing the $ before accesses of $foo fixes this:

class MyClass
{
    private $foo = FALSE;

    public function __construct()
    {
        $this->foo = TRUE;

        echo($this->foo);
    }
}

$bar = new MyClass();

I guess because it's treating $foo like a variable in the first example, so trying to call $this->FALSE (or something along those lines) which makes no sense. It's obvious once you've realised, but there aren't any examples of accessing on this page that show that.

[Editor's note: Removed copy of note by zzzzBov]
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