uniqid

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

uniqidGenerate a unique ID

Descrierea

string uniqid ([ string $prefix = "" [, bool $more_entropy = false ]] )

Gets a prefixed unique identifier based on the current time in microseconds.

Avertizare

This function does not create random nor unpredictable strings. This function must not be used for security purposes. Use a cryptographically secure random function/generator and cryptographically secure hash functions to create unpredictable secure IDs.

Parametri

prefix

Can be useful, for instance, if you generate identifiers simultaneously on several hosts that might happen to generate the identifier at the same microsecond.

With an empty prefix, the returned string will be 13 characters long. If more_entropy is TRUE, it will be 23 characters.

more_entropy

If set to TRUE, uniqid() will add additional entropy (using the combined linear congruential generator) at the end of the return value, which increases the likelihood that the result will be unique.

Valorile întoarse

Returns the unique identifier, as a string.

Exemple

Example #1 uniqid() Example

<?php
/* A uniqid, like: 4b3403665fea6 */
printf("uniqid(): %s\r\n"uniqid());

/* We can also prefix the uniqid, this the same as 
 * doing:
 *
 * $uniqid = $prefix . uniqid();
 * $uniqid = uniqid($prefix);
 */
printf("uniqid('php_'): %s\r\n"uniqid('php_'));

/* We can also activate the more_entropy parameter, which is 
 * required on some systems, like Cygwin. This makes uniqid()
 * produce a value like: 4b340550242239.64159797
 */
printf("uniqid('', true): %s\r\n"uniqid(''true));
?>

Note

Precauţie

This function does not generate cryptographically secure tokens, in fact without being passed any additional parameters the return value is little different from microtime(). If you need to generate cryptographically secure tokens use openssl_random_pseudo_bytes().

Notă:

Under Cygwin, the more_entropy must be set to TRUE for this function to work.

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 27 notes

up
30
keith at keithtyler dot com
4 years ago
For the record, the underlying function to uniqid() appears to be roughly as follows:

$m=microtime(true);
sprintf("%8x%05x\n",floor($m),($m-floor($m))*1000000);

In other words, first 8 hex chars = Unixtime, last 5 hex chars = microseconds. This is why it has microsecond precision. Also, it provides a means by which to reverse-engineer the time when a uniqid was generated:

date("r",hexdec(substr(uniqid(),0,8)));

Increasingly as you go further down the string, the number becomes "more unique" over time, with the exception of digit 9, where numeral prevalence is 0..3>4>5..f, because of the difference between 10^6 and 16^5 (this is presumably true for the remaining digits as well but much less noticeable).
up
16
Andrew Moore
4 years ago
The following class generates VALID RFC 4211 COMPLIANT Universally Unique IDentifiers (UUID) version 3, 4 and 5.

Version 3 and 5 UUIDs are named based. They require a namespace (another valid UUID) and a value (the name). Given the same namespace and name, the output is always the same.

Version 4 UUIDs are pseudo-random.

UUIDs generated below validates using OSSP UUID Tool, and output for named-based UUIDs are exactly the same. This is a pure PHP implementation.

<?php
class UUID {
  public static function
v3($namespace, $name) {
    if(!
self::is_valid($namespace)) return false;

   
// Get hexadecimal components of namespace
   
$nhex = str_replace(array('-','{','}'), '', $namespace);

   
// Binary Value
   
$nstr = '';

   
// Convert Namespace UUID to bits
   
for($i = 0; $i < strlen($nhex); $i+=2) {
     
$nstr .= chr(hexdec($nhex[$i].$nhex[$i+1]));
    }

   
// Calculate hash value
   
$hash = md5($nstr . $name);

    return
sprintf('%08s-%04s-%04x-%04x-%12s',

     
// 32 bits for "time_low"
     
substr($hash, 0, 8),

     
// 16 bits for "time_mid"
     
substr($hash, 8, 4),

     
// 16 bits for "time_hi_and_version",
      // four most significant bits holds version number 3
     
(hexdec(substr($hash, 12, 4)) & 0x0fff) | 0x3000,

     
// 16 bits, 8 bits for "clk_seq_hi_res",
      // 8 bits for "clk_seq_low",
      // two most significant bits holds zero and one for variant DCE1.1
     
(hexdec(substr($hash, 16, 4)) & 0x3fff) | 0x8000,

     
// 48 bits for "node"
     
substr($hash, 20, 12)
    );
  }

  public static function
v4() {
    return
sprintf('%04x%04x-%04x-%04x-%04x-%04x%04x%04x',

     
// 32 bits for "time_low"
     
mt_rand(0, 0xffff), mt_rand(0, 0xffff),

     
// 16 bits for "time_mid"
     
mt_rand(0, 0xffff),

     
// 16 bits for "time_hi_and_version",
      // four most significant bits holds version number 4
     
mt_rand(0, 0x0fff) | 0x4000,

     
// 16 bits, 8 bits for "clk_seq_hi_res",
      // 8 bits for "clk_seq_low",
      // two most significant bits holds zero and one for variant DCE1.1
     
mt_rand(0, 0x3fff) | 0x8000,

     
// 48 bits for "node"
     
mt_rand(0, 0xffff), mt_rand(0, 0xffff), mt_rand(0, 0xffff)
    );
  }

  public static function
v5($namespace, $name) {
    if(!
self::is_valid($namespace)) return false;

   
// Get hexadecimal components of namespace
   
$nhex = str_replace(array('-','{','}'), '', $namespace);

   
// Binary Value
   
$nstr = '';

   
// Convert Namespace UUID to bits
   
for($i = 0; $i < strlen($nhex); $i+=2) {
     
$nstr .= chr(hexdec($nhex[$i].$nhex[$i+1]));
    }

   
// Calculate hash value
   
$hash = sha1($nstr . $name);

    return
sprintf('%08s-%04s-%04x-%04x-%12s',

     
// 32 bits for "time_low"
     
substr($hash, 0, 8),

     
// 16 bits for "time_mid"
     
substr($hash, 8, 4),

     
// 16 bits for "time_hi_and_version",
      // four most significant bits holds version number 5
     
(hexdec(substr($hash, 12, 4)) & 0x0fff) | 0x5000,

     
// 16 bits, 8 bits for "clk_seq_hi_res",
      // 8 bits for "clk_seq_low",
      // two most significant bits holds zero and one for variant DCE1.1
     
(hexdec(substr($hash, 16, 4)) & 0x3fff) | 0x8000,

     
// 48 bits for "node"
     
substr($hash, 20, 12)
    );
  }

  public static function
is_valid($uuid) {
    return
preg_match('/^\{?[0-9a-f]{8}\-?[0-9a-f]{4}\-?[0-9a-f]{4}\-?'.
                     
'[0-9a-f]{4}\-?[0-9a-f]{12}\}?$/i', $uuid) === 1;
  }
}

// Usage
// Named-based UUID.

$v3uuid = UUID::v3('1546058f-5a25-4334-85ae-e68f2a44bbaf', 'SomeRandomString');
$v5uuid = UUID::v5('1546058f-5a25-4334-85ae-e68f2a44bbaf', 'SomeRandomString');

// Pseudo-random UUID

$v4uuid = UUID::v4();
?>
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17
John Haugeland from FullOf.BS
5 years ago
Generating an MD5 from a unique ID is naive and reduces much of the value of unique IDs, as well as providing significant (attackable) stricture on the MD5 domain.  That's a deeply broken thing to do.  The correct approach is to use the unique ID on its own; it's already geared for non-collision.

IDs should never be obfuscated for security, so if you're worried about someone guessing your ID, fix the system, don't just make it harder to guess (because it's nowhere near as difficult to guess as you imagine: you can just brute force the 60,000 MD5s that are generatable from millisecond IDs over the course of a given minute, which the typical computer can do in less than 0.1s).

If you absolutely need to involve a hash somehow - maybe to placate a boss who thinks they understand security much better than they actually do - append it instead.

function BadIdeaID() { return uniqid() . '_' . md5(mt_rand()); }
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11
rommel at rommelsantor dot com
3 years ago
The php5-uuid functions could definitely use some documentation to clarify how they should be used, but here's what I've gleaned by examining the OSSP source code (found here: http://ossp-uuid.sourcearchive.com/documentation/1.5.1-1ubuntu1/php_2uuid_8c-source.html).

The uuid_make() function takes two arguments when generating v1 or v4, but four arguments are required when generating v3 or v5. The first two arguments have been demonstrated below and are straightforward, so I'll skip to the as-yet non-described arguments.

The third argument to uuid_make() is: $namespace
  - this is a secondary resource created with uuid_create(); it is apparently used to generate an internal UUID, which is used as the namespace of the output UUID

The fourth argument to uuid_make() is: $url
  - this is the value that is to be hashed (MD5 for v3, SHA-1 for v5); it may be any string or even null

Here's a simple class illustrating the proper usage (note that if php5-uuid is not installed on your system, each function call will just return false):

<?php
class UUID {
 
/**
   * Generates version 1: MAC address
   */
 
public static function v1() {
    if (!
function_exists('uuid_create'))
      return
false;

   
uuid_create(&$context);
   
uuid_make($context, UUID_MAKE_V1);
   
uuid_export($context, UUID_FMT_STR, &$uuid);
    return
trim($uuid);
  }

 
/**
   * Generates version 3 UUID: MD5 hash of URL
   */
 
public static function v3($i_url) {
    if (!
function_exists('uuid_create'))
      return
false;

    if (!
strlen($i_url))
     
$i_url = self::v1();

   
uuid_create(&$context);
   
uuid_create(&$namespace);

   
uuid_make($context, UUID_MAKE_V3, $namespace, $i_url);
   
uuid_export($context, UUID_FMT_STR, &$uuid);
    return
trim($uuid);
  }

 
/**
   * Generates version 4 UUID: random
   */
 
public static function v4() {
    if (!
function_exists('uuid_create'))
      return
false;

   
uuid_create(&$context);

   
uuid_make($context, UUID_MAKE_V4);
   
uuid_export($context, UUID_FMT_STR, &$uuid);
    return
trim($uuid);
  }

 
/**
   * Generates version 5 UUID: SHA-1 hash of URL
   */
 
public static function v5($i_url) {
    if (!
function_exists('uuid_create'))
      return
false;

    if (!
strlen($i_url))
     
$i_url = self::v1();

   
uuid_create(&$context);
   
uuid_create(&$namespace);

   
uuid_make($context, UUID_MAKE_V5, $namespace, $i_url);
   
uuid_export($context, UUID_FMT_STR, &$uuid);
    return
trim($uuid);
  }
}
?>

And here's a demonstration:

<?php
for ($i = 1; $i <= 3; ++$i) {
  echo
'microtime = ' . microtime(true) . '<br/>';
  echo
"V1 UUID: " . UUID::v1() . '<br/>';
  echo
"V3 UUID of URL='abc': " . UUID::v3('abc') . '<br/>';
  echo
"V4 UUID: " . UUID::v4() . '<br/>';
  echo
"V5 UUID of URL=null: " . UUID::v5(null) . '<br/>';
  echo
'<hr/>';
}
?>

And the output:

microtime = 1306620716.0457
V1 UUID: 7fddae8e-8977-11e0-bc11-003048c3b1f2
V3 UUID of URL='abc': 522ec739-ca63-3ec5-b082-08ce08ad65e2
V4 UUID: b3851ec7-4871-4527-92b5-ef5616bae1e6
V5 UUID of URL=null: e129f27c-5103-5c5c-844b-cdf0a15e160d
-------------------
microtime = 1306620716.0465
V1 UUID: 7fddb83e-8977-11e0-9e6e-003048c3b1f2
V3 UUID of URL='abc': 522ec739-ca63-3ec5-b082-08ce08ad65e2
V4 UUID: 7e78fe0d-59b8-4637-af7f-e88d221a7d1e
V5 UUID of URL=null: e129f27c-5103-5c5c-844b-cdf0a15e160d
-------------------
microtime = 1306620716.0467
V1 UUID: 7fddbfb4-8977-11e0-a2bc-003048c3b1f2
V3 UUID of URL='abc': 522ec739-ca63-3ec5-b082-08ce08ad65e2
V4 UUID: 12a940c7-0f3f-46a1-bb5f-bdd602e10654
V5 UUID of URL=null: e129f27c-5103-5c5c-844b-cdf0a15e160d

As you can see, the calls to v3() always return the same UUID because the same URL parameter, "abc", is always supplied. The same goes for the v5() function which is always supplied a null URL.

The v4() UUIDs are always entirely different because they are (pseudo)random. And the v1() calls are very similar but just slightly different because it's based on the computer's MAC address and the current time.
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12
redtraider at gmail dot com
2 years ago
I use this function to generate microsoft-compatible GUID's.

<?php
public function create_guid($namespace = '') {    
    static
$guid = '';
   
$uid = uniqid("", true);
   
$data = $namespace;
   
$data .= $_SERVER['REQUEST_TIME'];
   
$data .= $_SERVER['HTTP_USER_AGENT'];
   
$data .= $_SERVER['LOCAL_ADDR'];
   
$data .= $_SERVER['LOCAL_PORT'];
   
$data .= $_SERVER['REMOTE_ADDR'];
   
$data .= $_SERVER['REMOTE_PORT'];
   
$hash = strtoupper(hash('ripemd128', $uid . $guid . md5($data)));
   
$guid = '{' .  
           
substr($hash08) .
           
'-' .
           
substr($hash84) .
           
'-' .
           
substr($hash, 124) .
           
'-' .
           
substr($hash, 164) .
           
'-' .
           
substr($hash, 20, 12) .
           
'}';
    return
$guid;
  }
?>
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6
Enrico Pallazzo
4 years ago
Running:

rand_uniqid(9007199254740989);

will return 'PpQXn7COf' and:

rand_uniqid('PpQXn7COf', true);

will return '9007199254740989'

---

If you want the rand_uniqid to be at least 6 letter long, use the $pad_up = 6 argument

---

You can support even more characters (making the resulting rand_uniqid even smaller) by adding characters to the $index var at the top of the function body.

---

<?php
function rand_uniqid($in, $to_num = false, $pad_up = false, $passKey = null)
{
   
$index = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ";
    if (
$passKey !== null) {
       
// Although this function's purpose is to just make the
        // ID short - and not so much secure,
        // you can optionally supply a password to make it harder
        // to calculate the corresponding numeric ID

       
for ($n = 0; $n<strlen($index); $n++) {
           
$i[] = substr( $index,$n ,1);
        }

       
$passhash = hash('sha256',$passKey);
       
$passhash = (strlen($passhash) < strlen($index))
            ?
hash('sha512',$passKey)
            :
$passhash;

        for (
$n=0; $n < strlen($index); $n++) {
           
$p[] =  substr($passhash, $n ,1);
        }

       
array_multisort($pSORT_DESC, $i);
       
$index = implode($i);
    }

   
$base  = strlen($index);

    if (
$to_num) {
       
// Digital number  <<--  alphabet letter code
       
$in  = strrev($in);
       
$out = 0;
       
$len = strlen($in) - 1;
        for (
$t = 0; $t <= $len; $t++) {
           
$bcpow = bcpow($base, $len - $t);
           
$out   = $out + strpos($index, substr($in, $t, 1)) * $bcpow;
        }

        if (
is_numeric($pad_up)) {
           
$pad_up--;
            if (
$pad_up > 0) {
               
$out -= pow($base, $pad_up);
            }
        }
       
$out = sprintf('%F', $out);
       
$out = substr($out, 0, strpos($out, '.'));
    } else {
       
// Digital number  -->>  alphabet letter code
       
if (is_numeric($pad_up)) {
           
$pad_up--;
            if (
$pad_up > 0) {
               
$in += pow($base, $pad_up);
            }
        }

       
$out = "";
        for (
$t = floor(log($in, $base)); $t >= 0; $t--) {
           
$bcp = bcpow($base, $t);
           
$a   = floor($in / $bcp) % $base;
           
$out = $out . substr($index, $a, 1);
           
$in  = $in - ($a * $bcp);
        }
       
$out = strrev($out); // reverse
   
}

    return
$out;
}

echo
rand_uniqid(1);
?>
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2
Anonymous
2 years ago
If you're on a Windows system, and you wan't the prefix to be the computer name (and not only localhost), you can invoke the exec function to get it.

Then your unique id should be :

<?php
$prefix
= exec("hostname");
echo
uniqid($prefix, true);
?>

Regards
up
2
Marius Karthaus
5 years ago
I've created a class from the function below. With it, creating a lot of uuids beomes about 100 times faster because you do not need to fopen() for each uuid.
uuid::get() still works as a static function if you just need a single uuid.

<?php
class uuid {
   
    protected
$urand;
   
    public function
__construct() {
       
$this->urand = @fopen ( '/dev/urandom', 'rb' );
    }

   
/**
     * @brief Generates a Universally Unique IDentifier, version 4.
     *
     * This function generates a truly random UUID. The built in CakePHP String::uuid() function
     * is not cryptographically secure. You should uses this function instead.
     *
     * @see http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4122#section-4.4
     * @see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UUID
     * @return string A UUID, made up of 32 hex digits and 4 hyphens.
     */
   
function get() {
       
       
$pr_bits = false;
        if (
is_a ( $this, 'uuid' )) {
            if (
is_resource ( $this->urand )) {
               
$pr_bits .= @fread ( $this->urand, 16 );
            }
        }
        if (!
$pr_bits) {
           
$fp = @fopen ( '/dev/urandom', 'rb' );
            if (
$fp !== false) {
               
$pr_bits .= @fread ( $fp, 16 );
                @
fclose ( $fp );
            } else {
               
// If /dev/urandom isn't available (eg: in non-unix systems), use mt_rand().
               
$pr_bits = "";
                for(
$cnt = 0; $cnt < 16; $cnt ++) {
                   
$pr_bits .= chr ( mt_rand ( 0, 255 ) );
                }
            }
        }
       
$time_low = bin2hex ( substr ( $pr_bits, 0, 4 ) );
       
$time_mid = bin2hex ( substr ( $pr_bits, 4, 2 ) );
       
$time_hi_and_version = bin2hex ( substr ( $pr_bits, 6, 2 ) );
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = bin2hex ( substr ( $pr_bits, 8, 2 ) );
       
$node = bin2hex ( substr ( $pr_bits, 10, 6 ) );
       
       
/**
         * Set the four most significant bits (bits 12 through 15) of the
         * time_hi_and_version field to the 4-bit version number from
         * Section 4.1.3.
         * @see http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4122#section-4.1.3
         */
       
$time_hi_and_version = hexdec ( $time_hi_and_version );
       
$time_hi_and_version = $time_hi_and_version >> 4;
       
$time_hi_and_version = $time_hi_and_version | 0x4000;
       
       
/**
         * Set the two most significant bits (bits 6 and 7) of the
         * clock_seq_hi_and_reserved to zero and one, respectively.
         */
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = hexdec ( $clock_seq_hi_and_reserved );
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = $clock_seq_hi_and_reserved >> 2;
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = $clock_seq_hi_and_reserved | 0x8000;
       
        return
sprintf ( '%08s-%04s-%04x-%04x-%012s', $time_low, $time_mid, $time_hi_and_version, $clock_seq_hi_and_reserved, $node );
    }

}
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3
Anonymous
3 years ago
Prefix can be useful, for instance, if you generate identifiers simultaneously on several hosts that might happen to generate the identifier at the same microsecond.
So we can include the hostname / servername in the id.
<?php
echo uniqid(php_uname('n'), true);
// Output: darkstar4dfa8c27aea106.40781203
?>
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2
Anonymous
2 years ago
I wouldn't use:
$prefix = exec("hostname");
- since it's CPU-expensive.

Instead use php_uname('n') if you have many visitors.
up
1
pe_ank at peanksoft dot com (Hengky Gumilar)
8 months ago
I guess, this is not a bugs, just a note for someone newbie like me,
i've got problem on uploading image, i tested on local server, it works fine but when i upload on my hosting site , the scripts failed (i use shared hosting, so i' m helpless), this is a part of my scripts:

$ext=$this->_fuphandler->extractExtension($data);   
        $strsha=sha1($this->_fuphandler->extractFilename($data));
        $r=sprintf($pathToRoot.$dest.'%s.%s',$strsha,$ext);    // filename builder
        $rawsrc = $data['tmp_name'];
        if(!move_uploaded_file($rawsrc,$r))
        {....}
it should work,  it did on my uniform server, but it didn't on my hosting so i spend many hours on trying, then i try  to change the  $strsha=uniqid();
and it works...
i know it's just a silly thing, ...hehehe, beside i'm just a newbie, but probably will help someone who has some problem like me.
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2
nodkz at mail dot ru
6 years ago
I use such UUID (it not RFC!!!)
(server_id)-(clientIP)-(unixtime)-(milliseconds)-(random)

I can easyly determine which server at which time and who initiate creating of object.

<?php

$u
=uuid();   // 0001-7f000001-478c8000-4801-47242987
echo $u;
echo
"<br>";
print_r(uuidDecode($u)); // Array ( [serverID] => 0001 [ip] => 127.0.0.1 [unixtime] => 1200390144 [micro] => 0.28126525878906 )

function uuid($serverID=1)
{
   
$t=explode(" ",microtime());
    return
sprintf( '%04x-%08s-%08s-%04s-%04x%04x',
       
$serverID,
       
clientIPToHex(),
       
substr("00000000".dechex($t[1]),-8),   // get 8HEX of unixtime
       
substr("0000".dechex(round($t[0]*65536)),-4), // get 4HEX of microtime
       
mt_rand(0,0xffff), mt_rand(0,0xffff));
}

function
uuidDecode($uuid) {
   
$rez=Array();
   
$u=explode("-",$uuid);
    if(
is_array($u)&&count($u)==5) {
       
$rez=Array(
           
'serverID'=>$u[0],
           
'ip'=>clientIPFromHex($u[1]),
           
'unixtime'=>hexdec($u[2]),
           
'micro'=>(hexdec($u[3])/65536)
        );
    }
    return
$rez;
}

function
clientIPToHex($ip="") {
   
$hex="";
    if(
$ip=="") $ip=getEnv("REMOTE_ADDR");
   
$part=explode('.', $ip);
    for (
$i=0; $i<=count($part)-1; $i++) {
       
$hex.=substr("0".dechex($part[$i]),-2);
    }
    return
$hex;
}

function
clientIPFromHex($hex) {
   
$ip="";
    if(
strlen($hex)==8) {
       
$ip.=hexdec(substr($hex,0,2)).".";
       
$ip.=hexdec(substr($hex,2,2)).".";
       
$ip.=hexdec(substr($hex,4,2)).".";
       
$ip.=hexdec(substr($hex,6,2));
    }
    return
$ip;
}

?>
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1
mark at whytewaters dot com
6 years ago
If you want many ids and performance of this function is an issue why not pull uniquid() out of the loop, eg:

$base = uniqueid();
$ids[] = array();

for ($index = 0; $index < 100000; $index++) 
    $ids[] = $base . '.' . $index;
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2
ken at smallboxsoftware
7 years ago
Just to note this function is fairly slow, and can bring your script to a crawl if it is in a loop. Strangely if you run it as uniqid('', true) it runs much more quickly
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1
sean at seancolombo dot com
5 years ago
This builds slightly on david's post below.  The differences are that it doesn't require Cake anymore and there is a graceful fallback for /dev/urandom in case that isn't available (/dev/urandom is not available on windows systems for example).

Since it uses mt_rand(), it is still cryptographically secure.

<?php
/**
     * @brief Generates a Universally Unique IDentifier, version 4.
     *
     * This function generates a truly random UUID. The built in CakePHP String::uuid() function
     * is not cryptographically secure. You should uses this function instead.
     *
     * @see http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4122#section-4.4
     * @see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UUID
     * @return string A UUID, made up of 32 hex digits and 4 hyphens.
     */
     
function uuidSecure() {
      
       
$pr_bits = null;
       
$fp = @fopen('/dev/urandom','rb');
        if (
$fp !== false) {
           
$pr_bits .= @fread($fp, 16);
            @
fclose($fp);
        } else {
           
// If /dev/urandom isn't available (eg: in non-unix systems), use mt_rand().
           
$pr_bits = "";
            for(
$cnt=0; $cnt < 16; $cnt++){
               
$pr_bits .= chr(mt_rand(0, 255));
            }
        }
      
       
$time_low = bin2hex(substr($pr_bits,0, 4));
       
$time_mid = bin2hex(substr($pr_bits,4, 2));
       
$time_hi_and_version = bin2hex(substr($pr_bits,6, 2));
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = bin2hex(substr($pr_bits,8, 2));
       
$node = bin2hex(substr($pr_bits,10, 6));
      
       
/**
         * Set the four most significant bits (bits 12 through 15) of the
         * time_hi_and_version field to the 4-bit version number from
         * Section 4.1.3.
         * @see http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4122#section-4.1.3
         */
       
$time_hi_and_version = hexdec($time_hi_and_version);
       
$time_hi_and_version = $time_hi_and_version >> 4;
       
$time_hi_and_version = $time_hi_and_version | 0x4000;
      
       
/**
         * Set the two most significant bits (bits 6 and 7) of the
         * clock_seq_hi_and_reserved to zero and one, respectively.
         */
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = hexdec($clock_seq_hi_and_reserved);
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = $clock_seq_hi_and_reserved >> 2;
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = $clock_seq_hi_and_reserved | 0x8000;
      
        return
sprintf('%08s-%04s-%04x-%04x-%012s',
           
$time_low, $time_mid, $time_hi_and_version, $clock_seq_hi_and_reserved, $node);
    }
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1
ciantic at NOSPAM dot oksidi dot com
11 months ago
If you are storing the value to database it might be more efficient to use more letters than in hexadecimal, for me I decided 0-9a-z is good enough.

Notice also that many databases are case insensitive by default so using capitals maybe unwise anyway:

<?php

function uniqid_base36($more_entropy=false) {
   
$s = uniqid('', $more_entropy);
    if (!
$more_entropy)
        return
base_convert($s, 16, 36);
       
   
$hex = substr($s, 0, 13);
   
$dec = $s[13] . substr($s, 15); // skip the dot
   
return base_convert($hex, 16, 36) . base_convert($dec, 10, 36);
}

echo
uniqid_base36() . "\n"; // eb98xzzhq7
echo uniqid_base36(true) . "\n"; // eb98xzzhr8dervre

?>

String length may vary with this method.
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0
team at researchbib dot com
10 months ago
The following is one example to get a random string class.

/**
* Description of RandomString
*
* @package
*/
class RandomString
{

    /**
     *
     * @param int $length
     * @return string
     */
    static public function getRandom($length)
    {
        $randomData = base64_encode(
                file_get_contents('/dev/urandom', false, null, 0, $length) . uniqid(mt_rand(), true)
        );
        return substr(strtr($randomData, array('/' => '', '=' => '', '+' => '')), 0, $length);
    }

}
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0
tom
3 years ago
mt_rand() features in a lot of comments here. It is a good PRNG for Monte Carlo simulations, not for anything related to security. Wikipedia's page on cryptographically-secure PRNGs explains. If you want it to be hard for an attacker to guess or predict a "random" UUID, try using /dev/random instead.

<?php
$r
= unpack('v*', fread(fopen('/dev/random', 'r'),16));
$uuid = sprintf('%04x%04x-%04x-%04x-%04x-%04x%04x%04x',
   
$r[1], $r[2], $r[3], $r[4] & 0x0fff | 0x4000,
   
$r[5] & 0x3fff | 0x8000, $r[6], $r[7], $r[8]);
?>

That's obviously not production code. It's just for illustration.
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0
david at ramaboo dot com
5 years ago
Another UUID function. This time using /dev/random
<?php
/**
     * @brief Generates a Universally Unique IDentifier, version 4.
     *
     * This function generates a truly random UUID. The built in CakePHP String::uuid() function
     * is not cryptographically secure. You should uses this function instead.
     *
     * @see http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4122#section-4.4
     * @see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/UUID
     * @return string A UUID, made up of 32 hex digits and 4 hyphens.
     */
   
public function uuidSecure() {
       
       
$pr_bits = null;
       
$fp = @fopen('/dev/urandom','rb');
        if (
$fp !== false) {
           
$pr_bits .= @fread($fp, 16);
            @
fclose($fp);
        } else {
           
$this->cakeError('randomNumber');
        }
       
       
$time_low = bin2hex(substr($pr_bits,0, 4));
       
$time_mid = bin2hex(substr($pr_bits,4, 2));
       
$time_hi_and_version = bin2hex(substr($pr_bits,6, 2));
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = bin2hex(substr($pr_bits,8, 2));
       
$node = bin2hex(substr($pr_bits,10, 6));
       
       
/**
         * Set the four most significant bits (bits 12 through 15) of the
         * time_hi_and_version field to the 4-bit version number from
         * Section 4.1.3.
         * @see http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc4122#section-4.1.3
         */
       
$time_hi_and_version = hexdec($time_hi_and_version);
       
$time_hi_and_version = $time_hi_and_version >> 4;
       
$time_hi_and_version = $time_hi_and_version | 0x4000;
       
       
/**
         * Set the two most significant bits (bits 6 and 7) of the
         * clock_seq_hi_and_reserved to zero and one, respectively.
         */
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = hexdec($clock_seq_hi_and_reserved);
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = $clock_seq_hi_and_reserved >> 2;
       
$clock_seq_hi_and_reserved = $clock_seq_hi_and_reserved | 0x8000;
       
        return
sprintf('%08s-%04s-%04x-%04x-%012s',
           
$time_low, $time_mid, $time_hi_and_version, $clock_seq_hi_and_reserved, $node);
    }
?>
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Jason
7 years ago
Neither the pseudo-random number rand() nor the Mersenne Twister algorithms are cryptographically strong, and this is well known.  Simply combining non-cryptographically strong algorithms doesn't not make a cryptographically strong algorithm either.  Mersenne Twister is a fast algorithm with good k-distribution which will give you numbers for a long time before it repeats itself.  MT, rand(), and MD5 should NOT be used for encryption, or for cookies that that store a session ID that gives personal information.  A simple application where non-collision of session IDs is highly preferred but not critical, such as storing a user's shopping cart items for when they return to your site (but not their personal information), IS a good use for the MT, rand() MD5, uniqid() and combinations thereof.
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mailrinke at _cutthis_yahoo dot com
7 years ago
I have been using mimecs version lately and do not think it's safe to think the results are always unqiue.

Although it could be just my bad programming, I found exactly 1 collission while debugging my code. It seems to me that if my code was incorrect it would have happened more than once.

I recommend anyone to include time as a factor of such an ID as to be a little more certain it is in fact unique.
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0
Emery
7 years ago
The example given in this document for a "better token" should be:

<?php
$better_token
= uniqid(md5(rand()), true);
?>

As it is now, the result isn't guaranteed to be unique, because MD5 has collisions.
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0
lance_rushing at hotmail dot com
7 years ago
wooshoofoo, the reason mimec is calling mt_rand multiple times is because the largest number mt_rand can produce is 2^31 (2147483647, as reported by mt_getrandmax() on my server).  RFC 4122 requires a 128 bit value.

Also they are not "4 digit sequeces", but 4 digit hexadecimal numbers.  16^4 == 2^16.

mimec's limiting each random result to 2^16 avoids problem of PHP's 2^32 integer max (http://php.net/manual/en/language.types.integer.php).

If you want to call mt_rand fewer times:  mimec's version calls mt_rand 8 times ( 16 bits * 8 = 128 bits ).  You *could* call mt_rand 5 times ( 31 bits + 31 bits + 31 bits + 31 bits + 4 bits = 128 bits ).  But then you would have keep all your values as strings.

Something like:

<?php
/**
* Another (ugly) "random or pseudo-random" version of RFC 4122
*
* This version calls mt_rand() the fewest possible times.
* if mt_getrandmax() == 2^31 then this will call mt_rand() 5 times YMMV
*
* Personally, I would use mimec's version
* To handle the large values, we'll keep everything as strings.
*
* @return string
*/
function uuid() {   

    
// Generate 128 bit random sequence
    
$randmax_bits = strlen(base_convert(mt_getrandmax(), 10, 2));  // how many bits is mt_getrandmax()
    
$x = '';
     while (
strlen($x) < 128) {
        
$maxbits = (128 - strlen($x) < $randmax_bits) ? 128 - strlen($x) :  $randmax_bits;
        
$x .= str_pad(base_convert(mt_rand(0, pow(2,$maxbits)), 10, 2), $maxbits, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT);
     }

    
// break into fields
    
$a = array();
    
$a['time_low_part'] = substr($x, 0, 32);
    
$a['time_mid'] = substr($x, 32, 16);
    
$a['time_hi_and_version'] = substr($x, 48, 16);
    
$a['clock_seq'] = substr($x, 64, 16);
    
$a['node_part'] =  substr($x, 80, 48);
    
    
// Apply bit masks for "random or pseudo-random" version per RFC
    
$a['time_hi_and_version'] = substr_replace($a['time_hi_and_version'], '0100', 0, 4);
    
$a['clock_seq'] = substr_replace($a['clock_seq'], '10', 0, 2);

   
// Format output
   
return sprintf('%s-%s-%s-%s-%s',
       
str_pad(base_convert($a['time_low_part'], 2, 16), 8, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT),
       
str_pad(base_convert($a['time_mid'], 2, 16), 4, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT),
       
str_pad(base_convert($a['time_hi_and_version'], 2, 16), 4, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT),
       
str_pad(base_convert($a['clock_seq'], 2, 16), 4, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT),
       
str_pad(base_convert($a['node_part'], 2, 16), 12, "0", STR_PAD_LEFT));
}

?>

However, I think mimec's version is much more elegant.
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0
wooshoofoo
7 years ago
I'm not sure the previous function by mimec is really all that random.  For one thing, generating 8 small random 4 digit sequeces != generating one 32 digit sequence.
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-1
admin at code-dynasty dot net
8 years ago
I'm not too fond of the recommendation to use an MD5 of the unique ID for session IDs. It would be a better idea just to use uniqueid(rand(), true) without the MD5, because even though it's a rare circumstance, MD5 is a hash, not an encryption, which means it has collisions. Therefore you theoretically could have multiple users given the same session ID which could result in one user's ability to access another user's data.
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-1
Marius Karthaus
5 years ago
Better yet, just use the php5-uuid extension and this class to create 'official' UUIDs at high speed (On my system 1000 UUIDs are created in 0.0064 seconds)

<?php

Usage
:
$uuid=new uuid();
echo
$uuid->v1();

class
uuid {
   
/**
     * This class enables you to get real uuids using the OSSP library.
     * Note you need php-uuid installed.
     * On my system 1000 UUIDs are created in 0.0064 seconds.
     *
     * @author Marius Karthaus
     *
     */
   
   
protected $uuidobject;
   
   
/**
     * On long running deamons i've seen a lost resource. This checks the resource and creates it if needed.
     *
     */
   
protected function create() {
        if (!
is_resource ( $this->uuidobject )) {
           
uuid_create ( &$this->uuidobject );
        }
    }
   
   
/**
     * Return a type 1 (MAC address and time based) uuid
     *
     * @return String
     */
   
public function v1() {
       
$this->create ();
       
uuid_make ( $this->uuidobject, UUID_MAKE_V1 );
       
uuid_export ( $this->uuidobject, UUID_FMT_STR, &$uuidstring );
        return
trim ( $uuidstring );
    }
   
   
/**
     * Return a type 4 (random) uuid
     *
     * @return String
     */
   
public function v4() {
       
$this->create ();
       
uuid_make ( $this->uuidobject, UUID_MAKE_V4 );
       
uuid_export ( $this->uuidobject, UUID_FMT_STR, &$uuidstring );
        return
trim ( $uuidstring );
    }
   
   
/**
     * Return a type 5 (SHA-1 hash) uuid
     *
     * @return String
     */
   
public function v5() {
       
$this->create ();
       
uuid_make ( $this->uuidobject, UUID_MAKE_V5 );
       
uuid_export ( $this->uuidobject, UUID_FMT_STR, &$uuidstring );
        return
trim ( $uuidstring );
    }
}
?>
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-1
php at ryanmckeel dot com
4 years ago
Calls to uuid_make that use the constants UUID_MAKE_V5 or UUID_MAKE_V3 (using Debian package php5-uuid available June 2010) will not work with only two variables.

I could not find good documentation, so I read some source code and figured out that this would work:

uuid_create(&$v5);
//uuid_make($v5, UUID_MAKE_V5);
uuid_make($v5, UUID_MAKE_V5,$v5,$uniqid());
uuid_export($v5, UUID_FMT_STR, &$v5String);

Please use at your own risk.  This may not be the best way to give this param variables, but it at least makes it work what appears to be properly (generating unique ID's).

I imagine that UUID_MAKE_V3 is similar in what it needs.

  Ryan
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