PHP 7.1.0 Alpha 2 Released

mktime

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7)

mktimeObtém um timestamp Unix de uma data

Descrição

int mktime ([ int $hora [, int $minuto [, int $second [, int $mes [, int $dia [, int $ano [, int $is_dst ]]]]]]] )

Retorna o timestamp Unix correspondente aos argumentos informados. Este timestamp é um inteiro longo contendo o número de segundos entre a Era Unix (January 1 1970 00:00:00 GMT), e o tempo especificado.

Argumentos podem ser omitidos da direita para esquerda; quaisquer argumentos omitidos serão definidos para o valor atual de acordo com a data e a hora local.

Notas

Nota:

A partir do PHP 5.1, chamar a função sem argumentos fará com que a função mktime() lance um aviso E_STRICT: utilize a função time() em substistituição.

Parâmetros

hour

O número da hora relativa ao início de determinado dia do month, day e year. Valores negativos referenciam a hora anterior a meia noite do dia em questão. Valores maiores que 23 referenciam a hora correspondente no(s) próximo(s) dia(s).

minute

O número de minutos relativos ao início da hour. Valores negativos referenciam minutos da hora anterior. Valores maiores que 23 referenciam os minutos correspondentes a(s) próxima(s) horas(s).

second

O número de segundos relativos ao início do minute. Valores negativos referenciam segundos do minuto anterior. Valores maiores que 23 referenciam os segundos correspondentes ao(s) próximo(s) minuto(s).

month

O número do mês relativo ao fim do anterior. Valores de 1 a 12 referenciam o calendário normal de meses do ano em questão. Valores menores que 1 (valores negativos, inclusos) referenciam meses do ano anterior em ordem reversa, então 0 é Dezembro, -1 Novembro, e etc. Valores maiores que 12 referenciam meses correspondentes ao(s) próximo(s) ano(s).

day

O número do dia relativo ao final do mês anterior. Valores de 1 a 28, 29, 30 e 31 (dependendo do mês) corresponde a dias normais no mês. Valores menores que 1 (valores negativos, inclusos) corresponde a dias no mês anterior, então 0 é o último dia do mês anterior, -1 é o dia anterior a este, e etc. Valores maiores que o número de dias do mês, referenciam dias correspondentes ao(s) próximo(s) mês(es).

year

O número do ano. Pode conter dois ou quatro dígitos, com os valores entre 0-69 significando 2000-2069 e 70-100 para 1970-2000. Em sistemas aonde o time_t é um inteiro assinado de 32 bit, como é mais comum, o alcance do ano é algo entre 1901 e 2038. Entretanto, antes do PHP 5.1.0 esse range era limitado para 1970 até 2038 em alguns sistemas (ex. Windows).

is_dst

Este parâmetro pode ser definido para 1 se está no horário de verão (DST), 0 se não está, ou -1 (o padrão) se não se sabe se a hora está dentro do horário de verão ou não. Se é desconhecido, o PHP tentará compreender por si mesmo. Isto pode causar resultados inesperados (mas não incorretos). As vezes será inválido se DST estiver habilitado no sistema em que o PHP está executando ou is_dst estiver definido para 1. Se DST estiver habilitado em e.g. 2:00, todos o período de tempo entre 2:00 e 3:00 será inválido e a função mktime() retornará um valor indefinido (normalmente negativo). Alguns sistemas (e.g. Solaris 8) habilitam DST na meia-noite, então a hora 0:30 do dia, quando DST está habilitado, é interpretada como 23:30 do dia anterior.

Nota:

No PHP 5.1.0, este parâmetro tornou-se obsoleto. Como resultado, o novo recurso de manipulação de fuso horário deve ser usado em substituição.

Nota:

Este parâmetro foi removido no PHP 7.0.0.

Valor Retornado

A função mktime() retorna o timestamp Unix dos argumentos informados. Se os argumentos são inválidos, a função retornará FALSE (em versões anteriores ao PHP 5.1, -1 era retornado).

Erros

Todas as chamadas a funções de data/hora gerarão um E_NOTICE se o fuso horário não for válido, e/ou uma mensagem E_STRICT ou E_WARNING se utilizar as configurações do sistema ou a variável de ambiente TZ. Veja também date_default_timezone_set()

Changelog

Versão Descrição
7.0.0 O parâmetro is_dst foi removido.
5.3.0 mktime() agora lançará um aviso E_DEPRECATED se o parâmetro is_dst for utilizado.
5.1.0 O parâmetro is_dst tornou-se obsoleto. Fazendo a função retornar FALSE em erro, em vez de -1. Reparada a função para aceitar ano, mês e dia passados como zero.
5.1.0 Quando chamada sem argumentos, a função mktime() lançará um aviso E_STRICT. Utilize a função time() em substituição.
5.1.0

Agora lança erros E_STRICT e E_NOTICE .

Exemplos

Exemplo #1 Exemplo básico da função mktime()

<?php
// Configura o fuso horário a ser utilizado. Disponível desde o PHP 5.1
date_default_timezone_set('UTC');

// Imprime: July 1, 2000 is on a Saturday
echo "July 1, 2000 is on a " date("l"mktime(000712000));

// Imprime algo como: 2006-04-05T01:02:03+00:00
echo date('c'mktime(123452006));
?>

Exemplo #2 Exemplo da mktime()

mktime() é útil para a aritmética e validação de data, já que calculará automaticamente o valor correto para a entrada fora do intervalo. Por exemplo, cada uma das seguintes linhas produzirá a string "Jan-01-1998".

<?php
echo date("M-d-Y"mktime(00012321997));
echo 
date("M-d-Y"mktime(0001311997));
echo 
date("M-d-Y"mktime(000111998));
echo 
date("M-d-Y"mktime(0001198));
?>

Exemplo #3 Último dia do próximo mês

O último dia de um mês informado pode ser expressado como o dia "0" do mês seguinte, não o dia -1. Os dois exemplos seguintes produzirão a string "The last day in Feb 2000 is: 29".

<?php
$lastday 
mktime(000302000);
echo 
strftime("Last day in Feb 2000 is: %d"$lastday);
$lastday mktime(0004, -312000);
echo 
strftime("Last day in Feb 2000 is: %d"$lastday);
?>

Notas

Cuidado

Em versões anteriores a PHP 5.1.0, timestamps negativos não eram suportados em nenhuma versão conhecida do Windows e em alguns outros sistemas também. Portanto o intervalo válido de anos foi limitado para 1970 até 2038.

Veja Também

  • checkdate() - Valida uma data Gregoriana
  • gmmktime() - Obtém um timestamp Unix para uma data GMT
  • date() - Formata a data e a hora local
  • time() - Retorna o timestamp Unix atual

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 23 notes

up
28
Alan
7 years ago
Do remember that, counter-intuitively enough, the arguments for month and day are inversed (or middle-endian). A common mistake for Europeans seems to be to feed the date arguments in the expected order (big endian or little endian).

It's clear to see where this weird order comes from (even with the date being big endian the order for all arguments would still be mixed - it's obviously based on the American date format with the time "prefixed" to allow an easier shorthand) and why this wasn't changed (passing the values in the wrong order produces a valid, though unexpected, result in most cases), but it continues to be a source of confusion for me whenever I come back to PHP from other languages or libraries.
up
14
joseph dot andrew dot hughes at gmail dot com
8 years ago
Just a small thing to think about if you are only trying to pull the month out using mktime and date.  Make sure you place a 1 into day field.  Otherwise you will get incorrect dates when a month is followed by a month with less days when the day of the current month is higher then the max day of the month you are trying to find.. (Such as today being Jan 30th and trying to find the month Feb.)
up
7
Rad
2 years ago
Be careful passing zeros into mktime, in most cases a zero will count as the previous unit of time. The documentation explains this yet most of the comments here still use zeroes.

For example, if you pass the year 2013 into mktime, with zeroes for everything else, the outcome is probably not what you are looking for.

<?php
echo date('F jS, Y g:i:s a', mktime(0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 2013));
// November 30th, 2012 12:00:00 am
?>

Instead of using 0's, try 1's. This makes more sense (except for minutes/seconds). Maybe not as obvious of a purpose as zeroes to other programmers, though.

<?php
echo date('F jS, Y g:i:s a', mktime(1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2013));
// January 1st, 2013 1:01:01 am
?>
up
6
thomas_corthals at hotmail dot com
8 years ago
It seems mktime() doesn't return negative timestamps on Linux systems with a version of glibc <= 2.3.3.
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6
tom at chegg dot com
5 years ago
I was using the following to get a list of month names.

for ($i=1; $i<13; $i++) {
  echo date('F', mktime(0,0,0,$i) . ",";
}

Normally this outputs -
January,February,March,April,May,June,July,August,
September,October,November,December

However if today's date is the 31st you get instead:
January,March,March,May,May,July,July,August,October,
October,December,December

Why? Because Feb,Apr,June,Sept, and Nov don't have 31 days!

The fix, add the 5th parameter, don't let the day of month default to today's date:

  echo date('F', mktime(0,0,0,$i,1) . ",";
up
3
rga at merchantpal dot com
9 years ago
You cannot simply subtract or add month VARs using mktime to obtain previous or next months as suggested in previous user comments (at least not with a DD > 28 anyway).

If the date is 03-31-2007, the following yeilds March as a previous month. Not what you wanted.

<?php
$dateMinusOneMonth
= mktime(0, 0, 0, (3-1), 312007 );
$lastmonth = date("n | F", $dateMinusOneMonth);
echo
$lastmonth;    //---> 3 | March
?>

mktime correctly gives you back the 3rd of March if you subtract 1 month from March 31 (there are only 28 days in Feb 07).

If you are just looking to do month and year arithmetic using mktime, you can use general days like 1 or 28 to do stuff like this:

<?php
$d_daysinmonth
= date('t', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,1,$myYear));     // how many days in month
$d_year = date('Y', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,1,$myYear));        // year
$d_isleapyear = date('L', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,1,$myYear));    // is YYYY a leapyear?

$d_firstdow = date('w', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,'1',$myYear));     // FIRST falls on what day of week (0-6)
$d_firstname = date('l', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,'1',$myYear));     // FIRST falls on what day of week Full Name

$d_month = date('n', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,28,$myYear));         // month of year (1-12)
$d_monthname = date('F', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,28,$myYear));         // Month Long name (July)
$d_month_previous = date('n', mktime(0,0,0,($myMonth-1),28,$myYear));         // PREVIOUS month of year (1-12)
$d_monthname_previous = date('F', mktime(0,0,0,($myMonth-1),28,$myYear));     // PREVIOUS Month Long name (July)
$d_month_next = date('n', mktime(0,0,0,($myMonth+1),28,$myYear));         // NEXT month of year (1-12)
$d_monthname_next = date('F', mktime(0,0,0,($myMonth+1),28,$myYear));         // NEXT Month Long name (July)
$d_year_previous = date('Y', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,28,($myYear-1)));        // PREVIOUS year
$d_year_next = date('Y', mktime(0,0,0,$myMonth,28,($myYear+1)));        // NEXT year

$d_weeksleft = (52 - $d_weekofyear);                     // how many weeks left in year
$d_daysinyear = $d_isleapyear ? 366 : 365;                // set correct days in year for leap years
$d_daysleft = ($d_daysinyear - $d_dayofyear);                // how many days left in year
?>
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4
ronnie dot kurniawan at gmail dot com
7 years ago
Add (and subtract) unixtime:

<?php
function utime_add($unixtime, $hr=0, $min=0, $sec=0, $mon=0, $day=0, $yr=0) {
 
$dt = localtime($unixtime, true);
 
$unixnewtime = mktime(
     
$dt['tm_hour']+$hr, $dt['tm_min']+$min, $dt['tm_sec']+$sec,
     
$dt['tm_mon']+1+$mon, $dt['tm_mday']+$day, $dt['tm_year']+1900+$yr);
  return
$unixnewtime;
}
?>
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2
PHPcoder at freemail dot ig3 dot net
8 years ago
The maximum possible date accepted by mktime() and gmmktime() is dependent on the current location time zone.

For example, the 32-bit timestamp overflow occurs at 2038-01-19T03:14:08+0000Z.  But if you're in a UTC -0500 time zone (such as EST in North America), the maximum accepted time before overflow (for older PHP versions on Windows) is 2038-01-18T22:14:07-0500Z, regardless of whether you're passing it to mktime() or gmmktime().
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4
info at microweb dot lt
5 years ago
Function to generate array of dates between two dates (date range array)

<?php
function dates_range($date1, $date2)
{
   if (
$date1<$date2)
   {
      
$dates_range[]=$date1;
      
$date1=strtotime($date1);
      
$date2=strtotime($date2);
       while (
$date1!=$date2)
       {
          
$date1=mktime(0, 0, 0, date("m", $date1), date("d", $date1)+1, date("Y", $date1));
          
$dates_range[]=date('Y-m-d', $date1);
       }
   }
   return
$dates_range;
}

echo
'<pre>';
print_r(dates_range('2009-12-25', '2010-01-05'));
echo
'</pre>';
?>

[EDIT BY danbrown AT php DOT net: Contains a bugfix submitted by (carlosbuz2 AT gmail DOT com) on 04-MAR-2011, with the following note: The first date in array is incorrect.]
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1
info at djdb dot be
2 years ago
raw date to clean timestamp
private function dateToTimestamp($date){
        $datefrom = explode(" ", $date);
        $value = array();
        if(strpos($datefrom[0], '-')){
            //print "issplit -";
            $value = explode("-", $datefrom[0]);
        }
        if(strpos($datefrom[0], '/')){
            //print "issplit /";
            $value = explode("/", $datefrom[0]);
        }
        /*if(){
           
        }*/
        if(strlen($value[2])==4){//13/12/2012
            //int mktime([hour[minute[second[month[day[year
            return mktime(0, 0, 0,$value[1],$value[0],$value[2]);
        }else{                  //2012/12/13
            //int mktime([hour[minute[second[month[day[year
            return mktime(0, 0, 0,$value[1],$value[2],$value[0]);
        }
    }
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2
mh240873 at web dot de
1 year ago
Pay attention that not all days have the same number of seconds (86400s) if you are using date_default_timezone_set(..) and the used timezone has Daylight Saving Time (DST) e.g. "Europe/Berlin". Under PHP 5.5.16 I get the following results:

  $shortday  = mktime(23,59,59, '3','29','2015') - mktime(0,0,0, '3','29','2015) + 1; // result: 82800s  (86400s - 3600s)
  $normalDay = mktime(23,59,59, '1', '2','2015') - mktime(0,0,0, '1', '1','2015) + 1; // result: 86400s 
  $longDay   = mktime(23,59,59,'10','25','2015') - mktime(0,0,0,'10','25','2015) + 1; // result: 90000s  (86400s + 3600s)

Pitfall is noticeable if you are running an iterative loop with a code like:
   echo date( 'd.m.Y', $day );
   $day = $day + 86400;   // 86400 = 24*3600 - frequently used in PHP code

which results in wrong date if $day reaches 2015-10-25 (end of summer time in Germany):
    24.10.2015
    25.10.2015  
    25.10.2015   // Ups! Same date twice in calendar
    27.10.2015

You may workaround this by using date_default_timezone_set('UTC') where all days have the same number of seconds.
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0
phper
2 months ago
Please mind function is timezone dependent. Timezone independent funciton is gmmktime
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0
mktime_php at mailinator dot com
3 months ago
One practical and useful example of using negative values in mktime is the following:

<?php
//Considering today's date
echo date('Y-m-d'); //Prints: 2016-03-22
echo date('Y-m-d', mktime(0, 0, 0, date("m"), date("d")-42, date("Y"))); //Prints: 2016-02-09
?>

By using date outputs inside mktime and adding or subtracting from them may be simpler than using other methods (string concatenations or timestamp values) and less prone to human calculations' errors.
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0
ooogla at hotmail dot com
7 years ago
If you want to increment the day based on a variable when using a loop you can use this when you submit a form

1. Establish a start date and end date in two different variables

2. Get the number of days between a date

$ndays = (strtotime($_POST['edate']) - strtotime($_POST['sdate'])) / (60 * 60 * 24);

Then here is the string you slip in your loop

$nextday  = date('Y-m-d', mktime(0, 0, 0, date("m", strtotime($_POST['sdate']))  , date("d", strtotime($_POST['sdate']))+ $count, date("Y", strtotime($_POST['sdate']))));

$count is incremented by the loop.
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-3
Stephen
9 years ago
There are several warnings here about using mktime() to determine a date difference because of daylight savings time. However, nobody seems to have mentioned the other obvious problem, which is leap years.

Leap years mean that any effort to use mktime() and time() to determine the age (positive or negative) of some timestamp in years will be flawed. There are some years that are 366 days long, therefore you cannot say that there is a set number of seconds per year.

Timestamps are good for determining *real* time, which is not the same thing as *human calendar* time. The Gregorian calendar is only an approximation of real time, which is tweaked with daylight savings time and leap years to make it conform more to humans' expectations of how time should or ought to work. Timestamps are not tweaked and therefore are the only authoritative way of recording in computers a proper order of succession of events, but they cannot be integrated with a Gregorian system unless you take both leap years and DST into account. Otherwise, you may get the wrong number of years when you are approaching a value of exactly X years.

As for PHP, you could still use timestamps as a way of determining age if you took into account not only DST but also whether or not each year is a leap year and adjusted your calculations accordingly. However, this could become messy and inefficient.

There is an alternative approach to calculating days given the day, month and year of the dates to be compared. Compare the years first, and then compare the month and day - if the month and day have already passed (or, if you like, if they match the current month and day), then add 1 to the total for the years.

This solution works because it stays within the Gregorian system and doesn't venture into the world of timestamps.

There is also the issue of leap seconds, but this will only arise if you literally need to get the *exact* age in seconds. In that case, of course, you would also need to verify that your timestamps are exactly correct and are not delayed by script processing time, plus you would need to determine whether your system conforms to UTC, etc. I expect this will hardly be an issue for anybody using PHP, however if you are interested there is an article on this issue on Wikipedia:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leap_second
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-2
yan
7 years ago
caculate days between two date

<?php
 
// end date is 2008 Oct. 11 00:00:00
 
$_endDate = mktime(0,0,0,11,10,2008);
 
// begin date is 2007 May 31 13:26:26
 
$_beginDate = mktime(13,26,26,05,31,2007);

 
$timestamp_diff= $_endDate-$_beginDate +1 ;
 
// how many days between those two date
 
$days_diff = $timestamp_diff/86400;

?>
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-4
zfowler at unomaha dot edu
6 years ago
Proper way to convert Excel dates into PHP-friendly timestamps using mktime():

<?php
// The date 6/30/2009 is stored as 39994 in Excel
$days = 39994;

// But you must subtract 1 to get the correct timestamp
$ts = mktime(0,0,0,1,$days-1,1900);

// So, this would then match Excel's representation:
echo date("m/d/Y",$ts);
?>

Excel uses "number of days since Jan. 1, 1900" to store its dates.  It also treats 1900 as a leap year when it wasn't, thus there is an extra day which must be accounted for in PHP (and the rest of the world).  Subtracting 1 from Excel's number will fix this problem.
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-4
ionut dot bodea at eydos dot ro
7 years ago
Here is what I use to calculate age. It took me 30 minutes to write and it's quite accurate. What it has special is that it's calculating the number of days a year has (float number), by testing if a year is a leap one or not. This number is used to compute the age.

<?php
function get_age($date_start, $date_end) {
   
$t_lived = get_timestamp($date_end) - get_timestamp($date_start);
   
$seconds_one_year = get_days_per_year($date_start, $date_end) * 24 * 60 * 60;
   
$age = array();
   
$age['years_exact'] = $t_lived / $seconds_one_year;
   
$age['years'] = floor($t_lived / $seconds_one_year);
   
$seconds_remaining = $t_lived % $seconds_one_year;
   
$age['days'] = round($seconds_remaining / (24 * 60 * 60));
    return
$age;
}
function
get_timestamp($date) {
    list(
$y, $m, $d) = explode('-', $date);
    return
mktime(0, 0, 0, $m, $d, $y);
}
function
get_days_per_year($date_start, $date_end) {
    list(
$y1) = explode('-', $date_start);
    list(
$y2) = explode('-', $date_end);
   
$years_days = array();
    for(
$y = $y1; $y <= $y2; $y++) {
       
$years_days[] = date('L', mktime(0, 0, 0, 1, 1, $y)) ? 366 : 365;
    }
    return
round(array_sum($years_days) / count($years_days), 2);
}

$date_birth = '1979-10-12';
$date_now = date('Y-m-d');

$age = get_age($date_birth, $date_now);
echo
'<pre>';
print_r($age);
echo
'</pre>';
?>


It will display something like this:
Array
(
    [years_exact] => 28.972974329491
    [years] => 28
    [days] => 355
)
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-5
cebleo at n-trance dot net
6 years ago
to ADD or SUBSTRACT times NOTE that if you dont specify the UTC zone your result is the difference +- your server UTC delay.

if you are ina utc/GMT +1

<?php
$hours_diff
= strtotime("20:00:00")-strtotime("19:00:00");
echo 
date('h:i', $hours_diff)." Hours";
?>

it shows: 02:00 Hours

but if you use a default UTC time:

<?php
date_default_timezone_set
('UTC');
$hours_diff = strtotime("20:00:00")-strtotime("19:00:00");
echo
"<br>". date('h:i', $hours_diff);
?>

it shows: 01:00 Hours.
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-6
Jacob Santos
3 years ago
Please note that incrementing a date using mktime in a loop is not proper. You could do it, except that there is a far better method found in the DateTime PHP class. Look at the documentation for DateTime::modify, DateTime::add (when supported) and DateTime::sub (when supported).

Also, adding seconds to a time is, well it isn't as easy as it seems, "Hey I'll just add 3600 seconds or 86400 seconds or x seconds!". The phrase once bitten, twice shy is quite applicable with the usage of adding seconds. If you ever had to 'fix' a time by calculating midnight to add the correct number of seconds, then you are doing it wrong.

Luckily, knowing is not a requirement, because DateTime and friends exists, removing the complexity for you.

So if given a choice of

mktime($seconds, $minutes, $hours+1);

and

$datetime->modify('+1 hour');

or

$datetime->add('P1H');

I'll go with the second choice, but probably not the third, unless I was using DateInterval::createFromDateString, so that other developers knew my intent.
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-8
rlz
8 years ago
Finding out the number of days in a given month and year, accounting for leap years when February has more than 28 days.

<?php
function days_in_month($year, $month) {
    return(
date( "t", mktime( 0, 0, 0, $month, 1, $year) ) );
}
?>

Hope it helps a soul out there.
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-7
delfino dot salinas at gmail dot com
2 years ago
this function returns the number of days of a provided month and year, it consider the actual rules for leap years

(if the year is multiple of 4 which is not a multiple of 100 unless multiple of thousand then is a leap)
Regards, hope this function solves any issue :)

function daysinmonth($month,$year) {
$dim = 0;
switch ($month) {
    case 1:
    case 3:
    case 5:
    case 7:
    case 8:
    case 10:
    case 12:
        $dim=31;
        break;
    case 4:
    case 6:
    case 9:
    case 11:
        $dim=30;
        break;
    case 2:
        if($year%4==0) {
            if($year%100==0) {
                if($year%1000==0) { $dim=29; } else { $dim=28; }
            } else {
                $dim=29;
            }
        } else {$dim=28;}
        break;
    }
    return($dim);
}
up
-8
mogster at redesign dot no
2 years ago
Just a simple function to return mktime from a db (mysql) datetime (Y-m-d H:i:s):

function retMktimest($dbdate) {
  return mktime(substr($dbdate, 11, 2), substr($dbdate, 14, 2), substr($dbdate, 17, 2), substr($dbdate, 5, 2), substr($dbdate, 8, 2), substr($dbdate, 0, 4));
}
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