Arc Tan curve manipulation.
I used this formula to help with increasing and then diminishing return for y given an increasing x for a game.
Ie: Food production (output) is y. Food research is x.
The more research you put into x the more you produce, however after a certain point you get less reward.
y = atan(x - pi()) + pi()/2;
The + pi()/2 moves it up the y axis so you'd add more if you want it to start higher.
The x - pi() moves it to the right so you'd minus more to move it more.
If you want stretched along the y axis change it to 2 * atan( ...... )
Dunno how useful it is... but it's there.