preg_split

(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7)

preg_split정규 표현식에 따라 문자열을 나눔

설명

array preg_split ( string $pattern , string $subject [, int $limit [, int $flags ]] )

정규 표현식에 따라서 주어진 문자열을 나눕니다.

인수

pattern

검색할 패턴 문자열.

subject

입력 문자열.

limit

지정하면, limit 회까지 나눠진 문자열을 반환하며, limit가 -1이면 "무제한"을 의미합니다. 이 값은 flags를 지정할 때 유용합니다.

flags

flags는 다음 플래그들을 조합할 수 있습니다 (bitwise | 연산자로 조합합니다) :

PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY
이 플래그를 설정하면, preg_split()에 의해 나눈 후 비어있지 않은 조각만을 반환합니다.
PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE
이 플래그를 설정하면, 구분자 패턴 안의 서브패턴도 검출하여 반환합니다.
PREG_SPLIT_OFFSET_CAPTURE

이 플래그를 설정하면, 문자열의 시작 위치도 반환합니다. 반환값이 매치된 문자열을 오프셋 0으로, 문자열 시작 위치를 오프셋 1로 가지는 배열을 원소로 갖는 배열로 변하는 점에 주의하십시오.

반환값

pattern에 매치한 경계로 나눠진 subject의 부분을 가진 배열을 반환합니다.

변경점

버전 설명
4.3.0 PREG_SPLIT_OFFSET_CAPTURE 추가
4.0.5 PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE 추가
4.0.0 flags 인수 추가

예제

Example #1 preg_split() 예제 : 검색 문자열의 일부만을 얻기

<?php
// " ", \r, \t, \n, \f를 포함하여
// 임의 갯수의 콤마와 스페이스로 구문을 나눕니다.
$keywords preg_split("/[\s,]+/""hypertext language, programming");
?>

Example #2 문자열을 구성 문자로 나누기.

<?php
$str 
'string';
$chars preg_split('//'$str, -1PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);
print_r($chars);
?>

Example #3 매치와 시작위치로 문자열을 나누기.

<?php
$str 
'hypertext language programming';
$chars preg_split('/ /'$str, -1PREG_SPLIT_OFFSET_CAPTURE);
print_r($chars);
?>

위 예제의 출력:

Array
(
    [0] => Array
        (
            [0] => hypertext
            [1] => 0
        )

    [1] => Array
        (
            [0] => language
            [1] => 10
        )

    [2] => Array
        (
            [0] => programming
            [1] => 19
        )

)

주의

Tip

정규 표현식의 힘이 필요하지 않으면, 더 빠른(그리고 간단한) explode()str_split()로 대체할 수 있습니다.

참고

  • spliti() - Split string into array by regular expression case insensitive
  • split() - Split string into array by regular expression
  • implode() - 문자열로 배열 원소를 결합
  • preg_match() - 정규표현식 매치를 수행
  • preg_match_all() - 전역 정규 표현식 매치를 수행합니다
  • preg_replace() - 정규 표현식 검색과 치환을 수행

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User Contributed Notes 20 notes

up
30
jan dot sochor at icebolt dot info
10 years ago
Sometimes PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE does strange results.

<?php
$content
= '<strong>Lorem ipsum dolor</strong> sit <img src="test.png" />amet <span class="test" style="color:red">consec<i>tet</i>uer</span>.';
$chars = preg_split('/<[^>]*[^\/]>/i', $content, -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY | PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE);
print_r($chars);
?>
Produces:
Array
(
    [0] => Lorem ipsum dolor
    [1] =>  sit <img src="test.png" />amet
    [2] => consec
    [3] => tet
    [4] => uer
)

So that the delimiter patterns are missing. If you wanna get these patters remember to use parentheses.

<?php
$chars
= preg_split('/(<[^>]*[^\/]>)/i', $content, -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY | PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE);
print_r($chars); //parentheses added
?>
Produces:
Array
(
    [0] => <strong>
    [1] => Lorem ipsum dolor
    [2] => </strong>
    [3] =>  sit <img src="test.png" />amet
    [4] => <span class="test" style="color:red">
    [5] => consec
    [6] => <i>
    [7] => tet
    [8] => </i>
    [9] => uer
    [10] => </span>
    [11] => .
)
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14
buzoganylaszlo at yahoo dot com
10 years ago
Extending m.timmermans's solution, you can use the following code as a search expression parser:

<?php
$search_expression
= "apple bear \"Tom Cruise\" or 'Mickey Mouse' another word";
$words = preg_split("/[\s,]*\\\"([^\\\"]+)\\\"[\s,]*|" . "[\s,]*'([^']+)'[\s,]*|" . "[\s,]+/", $search_expression, 0, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY | PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE);
print_r($words);
?>

The result will be:
Array
(
    [0] => apple
    [1] => bear
    [2] => Tom Cruise
    [3] => or
    [4] => Mickey Mouse
    [5] => another
    [6] => word
)

1. Accepted delimiters: white spaces (space, tab, new line etc.) and commas.

2. You can use either simple (') or double (") quotes for expressions which contains more than one word.
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13
Daniel Schroeder
9 years ago
If you want to split by a char, but want to ignore that char in case it is escaped, use a lookbehind assertion.

In this example a string will be split by ":" but "\:" will be ignored:

<?php
$string
='a:b:c\:d';
$array=preg_split('#(?<!\\\)\:#',$string);
print_r($array);
?>

Results into:

Array
(
    [0] => a
    [1] => b
    [2] => c\:d
)
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5
canadian dot in dot exile at gmail dot com
4 years ago
This regular expression will split a long string of words into an array of sub-strings, of some maximum length, but only on word-boundries.

I use the reg-ex with preg_match_all(); but, I'm posting this example here (on the page for preg_split()) because that's where I looked when I wanted to find a way to do this.

Hope it saves someone some time.

<?php
// example of a long string of words
$long_string = 'Your IP Address will be logged with the submitted note and made public on the PHP manual user notes mailing list. The IP address is logged as part of the notes moderation process, and won\'t be shown within the PHP manual itself.';

// "word-wrap" at, for example, 60 characters or less
$max_len = 60;

// this regular expression will split $long_string on any sub-string of
// 1-or-more non-word characters (spaces or punctuation)
if(preg_match_all("/.{1,{$max_len}}(?=\W+)/", $long_string, $lines) !== False) {

   
// $lines now contains an array of sub-strings, each will be approx.
    // $max_len characters - depending on where the last word ended and
    // the number of 'non-word' characters found after the last word
   
for ($i=0; $i < count($lines[0]); $i++) {
        echo
"[$i] {$lines[0][$i]}\n";
    }
}
?>
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2
ASchmidt at Anamera dot net
2 years ago
"... as is standard across PHP, you can use NULL to skip to the flags parameter" is not correct.

With PHP 7.1 and declare(strict_types=1), specifying NULL for "limit" will not "skip" to the flag. The result is:

"TypeError: preg_split() expects parameter 3 to be integer, null given".

Instead of NULL, you DO need to specify an explicit integer limit, as in 0 or -1, if no limit is wanted.
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7
PhoneixSegovia at gmail dot com
9 years ago
You must be caution when using lookbehind to a variable match.
For example:
'/(?<!\\\)\r?\n)/'
to match a new line when not \ is before it don't go as spected as it match \r as the lookbehind (becouse isn't a \) and is optional before \n.

You must use this for example:
'/((?<!\\\|\r)\n)|((?<!\\\)\r\n)/'
That match a alone \n (not preceded by \r or \) or a \r\n not preceded by a \.
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9
eric at clarinova dot com
8 years ago
Here is another way to split a CamelCase string, which is a simpler expression than the one using lookaheads and lookbehinds:

preg_split('/([[:upper:]][[:lower:]]+)/', $last, null, PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE|PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY)

It makes the entire CamelCased word the delimiter, then returns the delimiters (PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE) and omits the empty values between the delimiters (PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY)
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4
csaba at alum dot mit dot edu
10 years ago
If the task is too complicated for preg_split, preg_match_all might come in handy, since preg_split is essentially a special case.

I wanted to split a string on a certain character (asterisk), but only if it wasn't escaped (by a preceding backslash).  Thus, I should ensure an even number of backslashes before any asterisk meant as a splitter.  Look-behind in a regular expression wouldn't work since the length of the preceding backslash sequence can't be fixed.  So I turned to preg_match_all:

<?php
// split a string at unescaped asterisks
// where backslash is the escape character
$splitter = "/\\*((?:[^\\\\*]|\\\\.)*)/";
preg_match_all($splitter, "*$string", $aPieces, PREG_PATTERN_ORDER);
$aPieces = $aPieces[1];

// $aPieces now contains the exploded string
// and unescaping can be safely done on each piece
foreach ($aPieces as $idx=>$piece)
 
$aPieces[$idx] = preg_replace("/\\\\(.)/s", "$1", $piece);
?>
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4
Steve
14 years ago
preg_split() behaves differently from perl's split() if the string ends with a delimiter. This perl snippet will print 5:

my @a = split(/ /, "a b c d e ");
print scalar @a;

The corresponding php code prints 6:

<?php print count(preg_split("/ /", "a b c d e ")); ?>

This is not necessarily a bug (nowhere does the documentation say that preg_split() behaves the same as perl's split()) but it might surprise perl programmers.
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5
david dot binovec at gmail dot com
8 years ago
Limit = 1 may be confusing. The important thing is that in case of limit equals to 1 will produce only ONE substring. Ergo the only one substring will be the first one as well as the last one. Tnat the rest of the string (after the first delimiter) will be placed to the last substring. But last is the first and only one.

<?php

$output
= $preg_split('(/ /)', '1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8', 1);

echo
$output[0] //will return whole string!;

$output = $preg_split('(/ /)', '1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8', 2);

echo
$output[0] //will return 1;
echo $output[1] //will return '2 3 4 5 6 7 8';

?>
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9
jetsoft at iinet.net.au
15 years ago
To clarify the "limit" parameter and the PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE option,

<?php
$preg_split
('(/ /)', '1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8', 4 ,PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE );
?>

returns:

('1', ' ', '2', ' ' , '3', ' ', '4 5 6 7 8')

So you actually get 7 array items not 4
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8
wf
10 years ago
Spacing out your CamelCase using preg_replace:

<?php

function spacify($camel, $glue = ' ') {
    return
preg_replace( '/([a-z0-9])([A-Z])/', "$1$glue$2", $camel );
}

echo
spacify('CamelCaseWords'), "\n"; // 'Camel Case Words'
echo spacify('camelCaseWords'), "\n"; // 'camel Case Words'

?>
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3
php at dmi dot me dot uk
10 years ago
To split a camel-cased string using preg_split() with lookaheads and lookbehinds:

<?php
function splitCamelCase($str) {
  return
preg_split('/(?<=\\w)(?=[A-Z])/', $str);
}
?>
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1
markac
4 years ago
Split string into words.

<?php
$string
= 'This - is a, very dirty "string" :-)';

// split into words
$wordlist = preg_split('/\W/', $string, 0, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);

// returns only words that have minimum 2 chars
$wordlist = array_filter($wordlist, function($val) {
  return
strlen($val) >= 2;
});

// print
var_dump($wordlist);
?>

Result:

array (size=5)
  0 => string 'This' (length=4)
  1 => string 'is' (length=2)
  3 => string 'very' (length=4)
  4 => string 'dirty' (length=5)
  5 => string 'string' (length=6)
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0
Miller
5 years ago
This is a function to truncate a string of text while preserving the whitespace (for instance, getting an excerpt from an article while maintaining newlines). It will not jive well with HTML, of course.

<?php
/**
* Truncates a string of text by word count
* @param string $text The text to truncate
* @param int $max_words The maximum number of words
* @return string The truncated text
*/
function limit_words ($text, $max_words) {
   
$split = preg_split('/(\s+)/', $text, -1, PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE);
   
$truncated = '';
    for (
$i = 0; $i < min(count($split), $max_words*2); $i += 2) {
       
$truncated .= $split[$i].$split[$i+1];
    }
    return
trim($truncated);
}
?>
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-1
kenorb at gmail dot com
10 years ago
If you need convert function arguments without default default values and references, you can try this code:

<?php
    $func_args
= '$node, $op, $a3 = NULL, $form = array(), $a4 = NULL'
   
$call_arg = preg_match_all('@(?<func_arg>\$[^,= ]+)@i', $func_args, $matches);
   
$call_arg = implode(',', $matches['func_arg']);
?>
Result: string = "$node,$op,$a3,$form,$a4"
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-3
nesbert at gmail dot com
9 years ago
Hope this helps someone...

<?php
/**
* Split a string into groups of words with a line no longer than $max
* characters.
*
* @param string $string
* @param integer $max
* @return array
**/
function split_words($string, $max = 1)
{
   
$words = preg_split('/\s/', $string);
   
$lines = array();
   
$line = '';
   
    foreach (
$words as $k => $word) {
       
$length = strlen($line . ' ' . $word);
        if (
$length <= $max) {
           
$line .= ' ' . $word;
        } else if (
$length > $max) {
            if (!empty(
$line)) $lines[] = trim($line);
           
$line = $word;
        } else {
           
$lines[] = trim($line) . ' ' . $word;
           
$line = '';
        }
    }
   
$lines[] = ($line = trim($line)) ? $line : $word;

    return
$lines;
}
?>
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-4
anajilly
11 years ago
<?php
$s
= '<p>bleh blah</p><p style="one">one two three</p>';

$htmlbits = preg_split('/(<p( style="[-:a-z0-9 ]+")?>|<\/p>)/i', $s, -1, PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE);

print_r($htmlbits);
?>

Array
(
    [0] =>
    [1] => <p>
    [2] => bleh blah
    [3] => </p>
    [4] =>
    [5] => <p style="one">
    [6] =>  style="one"
    [7] => one two three
    [8] => </p>
    [9] =>
)

two interesting bits:

1. When using PREG_SPLIT_DELIM_CAPTURE, if you use more than one pair of parentheses, the result array can have members representing all pairs.  See array indexes 5 and 6 to see two adjacent delimiter results in which the second is a subset match of the first.

2. If a parenthesised sub-expression is made optional by a following question mark (ex: '/abc (optional subregex)?/') some split delimiters may be captured in the result while others are not.  See array indexes 1 and 2 to see an instance where the overall match succeeded and returned a delimiter while the optional sub-expression '( style="[-:a-z0-9 ]+")?' did not match, and did not return a delimiter.  This means it's possible to have a result with an unpredictable number of delimiters in the result array.

This second aspect is true irrespective of the number of pairs of parentheses in the regex.  This means: in a regular expression with a single optional parenthesised sub-expression, the overall expression can match without generating a corresponding delimiter in the result.
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-3
Peter -the pete- de Pijd
10 years ago
If you want to use something like explode(PHP_EOL, $string) but for all combinations of \r and \n, try this one:

<?php
$text
= "A\nB\rC\r\nD\r\rE\n\nF";
$texts = preg_split("/((\r(?!\n))|((?<!\r)\n)|(\r\n))/", $text);
?>

result:
array("A", "B", "C", "D", "", "E", "", "F");
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-2
php at haravikk dot me
3 years ago
When using the PREG_SPLIT_OFFSET_CAPTURE option you will end up with all results in a single array, which is often undesirable as it means you then have to filter out any delimiters you wanted to check for but not keep.

To get around this you can instead use preg_match_all() to perform the split. For comparison, here are two examples, both splitting around colon and semi-colon characters:

<?php $pieces_with_delimiters = preg_split('/[;:]/', $input, -1, PREG_SPLIT_OFFSET_CAPTURE); ?>

<?php preg_match_all('/([^;:]*)([;:]|$)/', $input, $matches);
list(,
$pieces, $delimiters) = $matches ?>

The latter requires a more complex pattern, but produces a much more convenient set of results to work with, depending upon what you want to do with them.
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