preg_replace_callback

(PHP 4 >= 4.0.5, PHP 5, PHP 7)

preg_replace_callback콜백을 이용한 정규 표현식 검색과 치환을 수행

설명

mixed preg_replace_callback ( mixed $pattern , callback $callback , mixed $subject [, int $limit [, int &$count ]] )

이 함수의 작동은 replacement 대신 callback을 지정하는 것을 제외하면, preg_replace()와 거의 동일합니다.

인수

pattern

검색할 패턴. 문자열이나 문자열을 가진 배열일 수 있습니다.

callback

string 문자열에서 매치한 요소의 배열이 넘겨져서 호출될 콜백. 콜백은 치환할 문자열을 반환해야 합니다.

종종 단 한번만 preg_replace_callback()에만 사용할 callback 함수가 필요합니다. 이러한 경우에 preg_replace_callback() 호출 안에서 create_function()을 사용해서 익명 함수를 선언할 수 있습니다. 이 방법으로 호출에 필요한 모든 정보를 한 군데 위치하게 할 수 있고, 다른 곳에서 사용하지 않는 콜백 함수의 이름으로 함수 이름공간을 어지럽히는 일을 막을 수 있습니다.

Example #1 preg_replace_callback()create_function()

/* 유닉스 형식 명령줄 필터로
 * 문단의 첫 대문자를 소문자로 바꿉니다. */
$fp = fopen("php://stdin", "r") or die("stdin을 읽을 수 없습니다");
while (!feof($fp)) {
    $line = fgets($fp);
    $line = preg_replace_callback(
        '|<p>\s*\w|',
        create_function(
             // 여기에서 홑따옴표가 중요합니다.
             // 혹은 모든 $를 \$로 회피해야 합니다.
             '$matches',
             'return strtolower($matches[0]);'
        ),
        $line
    );
    echo $line;
}
fclose($fp);
?>

subject

검색 치환할 문자열이나 문자열로 이루어진 배열.

limit

subject 문자열에 대한 각 패턴의 최대 가능 치환수. 기본값은 -1. (무제한)

count

지정하면, 이 변수는 치환을 마친 수로 채워집니다.

반환값

preg_replace_callback()subject 인수에 따라 배열이나 문자열을 반환합니다.

매치가 발견되면 새 subject가 반환되고, 그렇지 않으면 변경되지 않은 subject가 반환됩니다.

변경점

버전 설명
5.1.0 count 인수 추가

예제

Example #2 preg_replace_callback() 예제

<?php
// 이 문장은 2002년에 사용되었습니다.
// 2003년에 적합하게 업데이트합니다.
$text "April fools day is 04/01/2002\n";
$text.= "Last christmas was 12/24/2001\n";

// 콜백 함수
function next_year($matches)
{
  
// 보통: $matches[0]는 전채 매치입니다.
  // $matches[1]은 첫번째 '(...)'에 들어있는
  // 서브 패턴 매치로 이어집니다.
  
return $matches[1].($matches[2]+1);
}

echo 
preg_replace_callback(
            
"|(\d{2}/\d{2}/)(\d{4})|",
            
"next_year"$text);

?>

위 예제의 출력:

April fools day is 04/01/2003
Last christmas was 12/24/2002

Example #3 BB 코드를 다루기 위해 재귀 구조를 사용하는 preg_replace_callback()

<?php
$input 
"plain [indent] deep [indent] deeper [/indent] deep [/indent] plain";

function 
parseTagsRecursive($input)
{

    
$regex '#\[indent]((?:[^[]|\[(?!/?indent)|(?R))+)\[/indent]#';

    if (
is_array($input)) {
        
$input '<div style="margin-left: 10px">'.$input[1].'</div>';
    }

    return 
preg_replace_callback($regex'parseTagRecursive'$input);
}

$output parseTagsRecursive($input);

echo 
$output;
?>

참고

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User Contributed Notes 20 notes

up
90
Richard
10 years ago
The easiest way to pass more than one parameters to the callback function is with the 'use' keyword.

[This is better than using global, because it works even when we are already inside a function.]

In this example, the callback function is an anonymous function, which takes one argument, $match, supplied by preg_replace_callback().  The extra
"use ($ten)" puts the $ten variable into scope for the function.

<?php
$string
= "Some numbers: one: 1; two: 2; three: 3 end";
$ten = 10;
$newstring = preg_replace_callback(
   
'/(\\d+)/',
    function(
$match) use ($ten) { return (($match[0] + $ten)); },
   
$string
   
);
echo
$newstring;
#prints "Some numbers: one: 11; two: 12; three: 13 end";
?>
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5
Sjon at hortensius dot net
15 years ago
preg_replace_callback returns NULL when pcre.backtrack_limit is reached; this sometimes occurs faster then you might expect. No error is raised either; so don't forget to check for NULL yourself
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20
Yuri
10 years ago
If you want to call non-static function inside your class, you can do something like this.

For PHP 5.2 use second argument like array($this, 'replace'):
<?php
class test_preg_callback{

  private function
process($text){
   
$reg = "/\{([0-9a-zA-Z\- ]+)\:([0-9a-zA-Z\- ]+):?\}/";
    return
preg_replace_callback($reg, array($this, 'replace'), $text);
  }
 
  private function
replace($matches){
    if (
method_exists($this, $matches[1])){
      return @
$this->$matches[1]($matches[2]);    
    }
  } 
}
?>

For PHP 5.3 use second argument like "self::replace":
<?php
class test_preg_callback{

  private function
process($text){
   
$reg = "/\{([0-9a-zA-Z\- ]+)\:([0-9a-zA-Z\- ]+):?\}/";
    return
preg_replace_callback($reg, "self::replace", $text);
  }
 
  private function
replace($matches){
    if (
method_exists($this, $matches[1])){
      return @
$this->$matches[1]($matches[2]);    
    }
  } 
}
?>
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6
Fredow
7 years ago
<?php
// Nice little function that convert a string to uppercase by keeping the HTMLentities intact.
public static function strtoupper_entities($str) {

   
$patternMajEntities = '/(\&([A-Z])(ACUTE|CEDIL|CARON|CIRC|GRAVE|ORN|RING|SLASH|TH|TILDE|UML)\;)+/';
   
$str = preg_replace_callback ($patternMajEntities,
        function (
$matches) {
            return
"&" . $matches[2] . strtolower($matches[3]) . ";";
        },
strtoupper($str));
   
    return
$str;
}
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2
carlos dot ballesteros at softonic dot com
13 years ago
A simple function to replace a list of complete words or terms in a string (for PHP 5.3 or above because of the closure):

<?php
function replace_words($list, $line, $callback) {
    return
preg_replace_callback(
       
'/(^|[^\\w\\-])(' . implode('|', array_map('preg_quote', $list)) . ')($|[^\\w\\-])/mi',
        function(
$v) use ($callback) { return $v[1] . $callback($v[2]) . $v[3]; },
       
$line
   
);
}
?>

Example of usage:
<?php
$list
= array('php', 'apache web server');
$str = "php and the apache web server work fine together. php-gtk, for example, won't match. apache web servers shouldn't too.";

echo
replace_words($list, $str, function($v) {
    return
"<strong>{$v}</strong>";
});
?>
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2
Anonymous
12 years ago
Created this to fetch the link and name of an anchor tag. I use this when cleaning an HTML email to text. Using regex for HTML is not recommended but for this purpose I see no issue with it. This is not designed to work for nested anchors.

A note to keep in mind:
I was primarily concerned with valid HTML so if attributes do no use ' or " to contain the values then this will need to be tweaked.
If you can edit this to work better, please let me know.
<?php
/**
* Replaces anchor tags with text
* - Will search string and replace all anchor tags with text (case insensitive)
*
* How it works:
* - Searches string for an anchor tag, checks to make sure it matches the criteria
*         Anchor search criteria:
*             - 1 - <a (must have the start of the anchor tag )
*             - 2 - Can have any number of spaces or other attributes before and after the href attribute
*             - 3 - Must close the anchor tag
*
* - Once the check has passed it will then replace the anchor tag with the string replacement
* - The string replacement can be customized
*
* Know issue:
* - This will not work for anchors that do not use a ' or " to contain the attributes.
*         (i.e.- <a href=http: //php.net>PHP.net</a> will not be replaced)
*/
function replaceAnchorsWithText($data) {
   
/**
     * Had to modify $regex so it could post to the site... so I broke it into 6 parts.
     */
   
$regex  = '/(<a\s*'; // Start of anchor tag
   
$regex .= '(.*?)\s*'; // Any attributes or spaces that may or may not exist
   
$regex .= 'href=[\'"]+?\s*(?P<link>\S+)\s*[\'"]+?'; // Grab the link
   
$regex .= '\s*(.*?)\s*>\s*'; // Any attributes or spaces that may or may not exist before closing tag
   
$regex .= '(?P<name>\S+)'; // Grab the name
   
$regex .= '\s*<\/a>)/i'; // Any number of spaces between the closing anchor tag (case insensitive)
   
   
if (is_array($data)) {
       
// This is what will replace the link (modify to you liking)
       
$data = "{$data['name']}({$data['link']})";
    }
    return
preg_replace_callback($regex, 'replaceAnchorsWithText', $data);
}

$input  = 'Test 1: <a href="http: //php.net1">PHP.NET1</a>.<br />';
$input .= 'Test 2: <A name="test" HREF=\'HTTP: //PHP.NET2\' target="_blank">PHP.NET2</A>.<BR />';
$input .= 'Test 3: <a hRef=http: //php.net3>php.net3</a><br />';
$input .= 'This last line had nothing to do with any of this';

echo
replaceAnchorsWithText($input).'<hr/>';
?>
Will output:
Test 1: PHP.NET1(http: //php.net1).
Test 2: PHP.NET2(HTTP: //PHP.NET2).
Test 3: php.net3 (is still an anchor)
This last line had nothing to do with any of this
up
1
T-Soloveychik at ya dot ru
9 years ago
Text lines numeration:
<?PHP
// Multieline text:
   
$Text = "
Some
Multieline
text
for
numeration"
;

// For count:
   
$GLOBALS["LineNUMBER"] = 1;

// Replace linestart on number:
   
PRINT preg_replace_callback("/^/m",function ()
        {
            return
$GLOBALS["LineNUMBER"]++."  ";
        },
       
$Text);

?>

1
2 Some
3 Multieline
4 text
5 for
6 numeration
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1
kkatpki
9 years ago
Note that, as of PHP 5.3, it seems that named subpatterns are now included in the matches array by their named key as well as their numerical key.

To build off of Chris' previous example, as of PHP 5.3, you *can* do

<?php

preg_replace_callback
('/(?<char>[a-z])/', 'callback', 'word');

function
callback($matches) {
   
var_dump($matches);
}

?>

and expect to get $matches['char'] in your function. * BUT ONLY AS OF PHP 5.3 *

Please be mindful of this if you intend to support PHP 5.2.
up
1
Florian Arndt
10 years ago
This small class allows PHP users to read JSON files with include statements in them. For instance the include {{{ "relative/to/including.json" }}} is replaced by the content of the json file located at "relative/to/including.json".

<?php
   
/**
     * Handles JSON files with includes
     * Purpose: handle bigger JSON files by featuring "includes"
     *
     * @author Florian Arndt
     */
   
class JWI {
       
/**
         * Parses a JSON file and returns its contents
         * @param String $filename
         */
       
static function read($filename) {
            if(!
file_exists($filename))
                throw new
Exception('<b>JWI Error: JSON file <tt>'.$filename.'</tt> not found!</b>');
           
$content = join('', file($filename));
           
$dir = dirname($filename);
           
/**
             * replace
             *   include statements
             * with
             *   content of the file to include
             * recursively
             */
           
$content = preg_replace_callback(
               
'/{{{\s*"\s*(.+)\s*"\s*}}}/', // >include file< - pattern
               
create_function(
                   
'$matches', // callback parameter
                   
sprintf(
                       
'$fn = "%s/".$matches[1];'.
                       
'return JWI::read($fn);',
                       
realpath(dirname($filename))
                    )
                ),
               
$content
           
);
            return
$content;
        }
    }
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1
chris at ocproducts dot com
12 years ago
The pcre.backtrack_limit option (added in PHP 5.2) can trigger a NULL return, with no errors. The default pcre.backtrack_limit value is 100000. If you have a match that exceeds about half this limit it triggers a NULL response.
e.g. My limit was at 100000 but 500500 triggered a NULL response. I'm not running unicode but I *guess* PCRE runs in utf-16.
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1
development at HashNotAdam dot com
10 years ago
From PHP 5.3 you can use an anonymous function to pass local variables into the callback.

<?php

public function replace_variables( $subject, $otherVars ) {
   
$linkPatterns = array(
       
'/(<a .*)href=(")([^"]*)"([^>]*)>/U',
       
"/(<a .*)href=(')([^']*)'([^>]*)>/U"
   
);

   
$callback = function( $matches ) use ( $otherVars ) {
       
$this->replace_callback($matches, $otherVars);
    };

    return
preg_replace_callback($this->patterns, $callback, $subject);
}

public function
replace_callback($matches, $otherVars) {
    return
$matches[1] . $otherVars['myVar'];
}
?>
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-2
tgage at nobigfoot dot com
4 years ago
To use variable from the parent scope of the anonymous callback function passed to preg_replace_callback(), utilize the use() parameter.

$var1 = "one";
$var2 = "two";
$line = preg_replace_callback('/^.*$/',
            function( $matches ) use ( $var1, $var2 ) {
                return( $var1 . " " . $var2 );
            }, $line);

Will replace the entire string with the concatenated values or $var1 and $var2 ("one two") from the parent scope.
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0
Drake
12 years ago
The good version of the class PhpHex2Str
<?php
class PhpHex2Str
{
    private
$strings;

    private static function
x_hex2str($hex) {
       
$hex = substr($hex[0], 1);
       
$str = '';
        for(
$i=0;$i < strlen($hex);$i+=2) {
           
$str.=chr(hexdec(substr($hex,$i,2)));
        }
        return
$str;
    }

    public function
decode($strings = null) {
       
$this->strings = (string) $strings;
        return
preg_replace_callback('#\%[a-zA-Z0-9]{2}#', 'PhpHex2Str::x_hex2str', $this->strings);
    }
}

// Exemple
$obj = new PhpHex2Str;

$strings = $obj->decode($strings);
var_dump($strings);
?>
up
0
matt at mattsoft dot net
16 years ago
it is much better on preformance and better practice to use the preg_replace_callback function instead of preg_replace with the e modifier.

function a($text){return($text);}

// 2.76 seconds to run 50000 times
preg_replace("/\{(.*?)\}/e","a('\\1','\\2','\\3',\$b)",$a);

// 0.97 seconds to run 50000 times
preg_replace_callback("/\{(.*?)\}/s","a",$a);
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-1
alex dot cs00 at yahoo dot ca
12 years ago
Don't use this function to fetch BBCode, as explained. If you have some text that runs over 5000 chars (average), it will run out of its limit and makes you download the PHP page.

According to this, you should instead use something more advanced yet complex. You will need a function called "str_replace_once()" (search for it), one called "countWord()", the famous "after()", "before()", "between()".

str_replace_once does same as str_replace, but only replace first occurence. As for countWord, I guess you know how to count the number of a word occurence. As for after, before and between, this is a function that you may find easily somewhere on the site by a user. Else, you can do it.

The following function is able to do all blocks, supposing [code] and [/code], you might wish things between parents dont get parsed, including [code] if inside of another [code].

<?php
function prepareCode($code, $op, $end)
{
   
$ix = 0;
   
$iy = 0;
   
$nbr_Op = countWord($op, $code);
    while(
$ix < $nbr_Op)
    {
        if(
in_string($op, before($end, $code), false))
        {
           
// The following piece of code replace the default [tag] by [tag:#]
           
$code = str_replace_once($op, substr($op, 0, -1).':'.$ix.']', $code);
           
$iy++;
        }
        elseif(
in_string($end, before($op, $code), false))
        {
           
$iy = $iy-1;
           
$code = str_replace_once($end, substr($end, 0, -1).':'.($ix-1).']', $code);
           
$ix = $ix-2;
        }
       
$ix++;
    }
    while(
in_string($end, $code))
    {
       
$code = str_replace_once($end, substr($end, 0, -1).':'.($iy-1).']', $code);
       
$iy=$iy-1;
    }

   
$code = preg_replace('#\\'.substr($end, 0, 1).':-[0-9]\]#i', '', $code);
    if(
in_string(substr($op, 0, -1).':0]', $code) && !in_string(substr($end, 0, -1).':0]', $code))
    {
       
$code .= substr($end, 0, -1).":0]";
    }
    return
$code;
}
?>

$code returns the whole text semi-formated. You only need to use it as :
$code = prepareCode($code="Your text", $op="[tag]" , $end="[/tag]");
Then just replace the parent tags :
str_replace("[tag:0]", "<tag>", $code);
str_replace("[/tag:0]", "</tag>", $code);
So at the end something like :
[
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-1
steven at nevvix dot com
4 years ago
<?php
$format
= <<<SQL
CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS :database;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON :database_name.* TO ':user'@':host';
SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD(':pass');
SQL;
$args = ["database"=>"people", "user"=>"staff", "pass"=>"pass123", "host"=>"localhost"];

preg_replace_callback("/:(\w+)/", function ($matches) use ($args) {
    return @
$args[$matches[1]] ?: $matches[0];
},
$format);

/*
Result:

CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS people;
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON :database_name.* TO 'staff'@'localhost';
SET PASSWORD = PASSWORD('pass123');

The `:database_name` placeholder doesn't exist as a matching key in `$args` so it's returned as is.
This way you know you need to correct the array by adding the "database_name" item.
*/
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-1
Anteaus
7 years ago
Be aware that as of php5.4 you MUST NOT pass variables by reference, as in  '[, int &$count ]' - if you do it will result in a fatal error.
I think the writer is trying to say that the function accepts the parameter by reference, but that is not how it reads. -Manual needs updating/clarifying ?
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-1
Drake
12 years ago
Decode Hexa to Strings =)
<?php
class PhpHex2Str
{
    private
$strings;

    private function
x_hex2str($hex) {
       
$hex = substr($hex[0], 1);
       
$str = '';
        for(
$i=0;$i < strlen($hex);$i+=2) {
           
$str.=chr(hexdec(substr($hex,$i,2)));
        }
        return
$str;
    }

    public function
decode($strings = null) {
       
$this->strings = (string) $strings;
        return
preg_replace_callback('#\%[a-zA-Z0-9]{2}#', 'x_hex2str', $this->strings);
    }
}

// Example
$strings = 'a %20 b%0A h %27 h %23';

$obj = new PhpHex2Str;
$strings = $obj->decode($strings);
var_dump($strings);
?>
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-3
2962051004 at qq dot com
4 years ago
<?php

/**
* 将中文转为Html实体
* Turning Chinese into Html entity
* Author QiangGe
* Mail 2962051004@qq.com
*
*/

$str = <<<EOT
你好 world
EOT;

function
ChineseToEntity($str) {
return
preg_replace_callback(
       
'/[\x{4e00}-\x{9fa5}]/u', // utf-8
        // '/[\x7f-\xff]+/', // if gb2312
       
function ($matches) {
           
$json = json_encode(array($matches[0]));
           
preg_match('/\[\"(.*)\"\]/', $json, $arr);
           
/*
             * 通过json_encode函数将中文转为unicode
             * 然后用正则取出unicode
             * Turn the Chinese into Unicode through the json_encode function, then extract Unicode from regular.
             * I think this idea is seamless.
            */
           
return '&#x'. str_replace('\\u', '', $arr[1]). ';';
        },
$str
  
);
}

echo
ChineseToEntity($str);
// &#x4f60;&#x597d; world
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-3
Underdog
8 years ago
For the callback I advise only to use a permanent or anonymous function.

Depending on the usage you may encounter memory issues when using create_function for the callback possibly due to attempts at being compatible with PHP 5.2 or prior. Some servers  refuse to update their PHP  for whatever reason.

Please peruse the create_function documentation for more details regarding its memory usage.

Regards.
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