(PHP 4 >= 4.3.0, PHP 5)

mysql_real_escape_stringEscapa caracteres especiales en una cadena para su uso en una sentencia SQL


Esta extensión fue declarada obsoleta en PHP 5.5.0 y eliminada en PHP 7.0.0. En su lugar debería utilzarse las extensiones MySQLi o PDO_MySQL. Véase también la guía MySQL: elegir una API y sus P+F relacionadas para más información. Alternatives to this function include:


string mysql_real_escape_string ( string $unescaped_string [, resource $link_identifier = NULL ] )

Escapa caracteres especiales en la cadena dada por unescaped_string, teniendo en cuenta el conjunto de caracteres en uso de la conexión, para que sea seguro usarla en mysql_query(). Si se van a insertar datos binarios, se ha de usar esta función.

mysql_real_escape_string() llama a la función mysql_real_escape_string de la biblioteca de MySQL, la cual antepone barras invertidas a los siguientes caracteres: \x00, \n, \r, \, ', " y \x1a.

Esta función siempre debe usarse (con pocas excepciones) para hacer seguros los datos antes de enviar una consulta a MySQL.


Seguridad: el conjunto de caracters predeterminado

El conjunto de caracteres debe ser establecido o bien a nivel del servidor, o bien con la función mysql_set_charset() de la API para que afecte a mysql_real_escape_string(). Véase la sección sobre los conceptos de conjuntos de caracters para más información.



La cadena a escapar.


La conexión MySQL. Si no se especifica el identificador de enlace, se asume el último enlace abierto por mysql_connect(). Si no se encuentra este enlace, se intentará crear un nuevo enlace como si mysql_connect() hubiese sido invocada sin argumentos. Si no se encuentra o establece ninguna conexión, se genera un error de nivel E_WARNING.

Valores devueltos

Devuelve la cadena escapada, o FALSE en caso de error.


Ejecutar esta función sin una conexión de MySQL presente también emitirá errores de nivel E_WARNING de PHP. Solo se ha de ejecutar con una conexión de MySQL válida presente.


Ejemplo #1 Ejemplo sencillo de mysql_real_escape_string()

// Conexión
$enlace mysql_connect('anfitrión_mysql''usuario_mysql''contraseña_mysql')
    OR die(

// Consulta
$consulta sprintf("SELECT * FROM users WHERE user='%s' AND password='%s'",

Ejemplo #2 mysql_real_escape_string() requiere una conexión

Este ejemplo muestra lo que sucede si no hay presente una conexión de MySQL al invocar a esta función.

// No nos hemos conectado a MySQL

$apellido  "O'Reilly";
$_apellido mysql_real_escape_string($apellido);

$consulta "SELECT * FROM actors WHERE last_name = '$_apellido'";


El resultado del ejemplo sería algo similar a:

Warning: mysql_real_escape_string(): No such file or directory in /this/test/script.php on line 5
Warning: mysql_real_escape_string(): A link to the server could not be established in /this/test/script.php on line 5

string(41) "SELECT * FROM actors WHERE last_name = ''"

Ejemplo #3 Un ejemplo de ataque de inyección de SQL

// No hemos comprobado $_POST['password'], ¡podría ser cualquier cosa que el usuario quisiera! Por ejemplo:
$_POST['username'] = 'aidan';
$_POST['password'] = "' OR ''='";

// Consultar la base de datos para comprobar si existe algún usuario que coincida
$consulta "SELECT * FROM users WHERE user='{$_POST['username']}' AND password='{$_POST['password']}'";

// Esto significa que la consulta enviada a MySQL sería:
echo $consulta;

La consulta enviada a MySQL:

SELECT * FROM users WHERE user='aidan' AND password='' OR ''=''

Esto permitiría a alguien acceder a una sesión sin una contraseña válida.



Se requiere una conexión a MySQL antes de usar mysql_real_escape_string(), si no, se generará un error de nivel E_WARNING, y se devolverá FALSE. Si link_identifier no está definido, se usará la última conexión a MySQL.


Si magic_quotes_gpc está habilitado, primero se ha de aplicar stripslashes() a los datos. Si se usa esta función en datos que ya han sido escapados, se escaparán dos veces.


Si esta función no se utiliza para escapar los datos, la consulta es vulnerable a Ataques de inyección SQL.

Nota: mysql_real_escape_string() no escapa % ni _. Estos son comodines en MySQL si se combinan con LIKE, GRANT, o REVOKE.

Ver también

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User Contributed Notes 8 notes

6 years ago
Just a little function which mimics the original mysql_real_escape_string but which doesn't need an active mysql connection. Could be implemented as a static function in a database class. Hope it helps someone.

function mysql_escape_mimic($inp) {
array_map(__METHOD__, $inp);

$inp) && is_string($inp)) {
str_replace(array('\\', "\0", "\n", "\r", "'", '"', "\x1a"), array('\\\\', '\\0', '\\n', '\\r', "\\'", '\\"', '\\Z'), $inp);

Walter Tross
5 years ago
For further information:
(replace your MySQL version in the URL)
10 years ago
Note that mysql_real_escape_string doesn't prepend backslashes to \x00, \n, \r, and and \x1a as mentionned in the documentation, but actually replaces the character with a MySQL acceptable representation for queries (e.g. \n is replaced with the '\n' litteral). (\, ', and " are escaped as documented) This doesn't change how you should use this function, but I think it's good to know.
24 days ago
To Quote Sam at Numb Safari

[ "No discussion of escaping is complete without telling everyone that you should basically never use external input to generate interpreted code. This goes for SQL statements, or anything you would call any sort of "eval" function on.

So, instead of using this terribly broken function, use parametric prepared statements instead.

Honestly, using user provided data to compose SQL statements should be considered professional negligence and you should be held accountable by your employer or client for not using parametric prepared statements." ]

Sam is right........

However I do not think it is sensible to stop all sanitising and simply pass the task on to parametric prepared statements.

A particular developer working in a particular situation will always know more about valid input (specific to that context).

If you ask a user to pass in a value you have already given them and you know that all such values start AB****** and the string should be of length 7 or 11 but never any other length then you have the basis of a good pre-sanitiser - different allowable lengths of a string might indicate legacy data.

I would never want to simply pass the rubbish that a malicious user may have passed in through a form to the parametric prepared statements, I would always want to do my own sanity checks first and in some cases these may err on the side of caution and simply choose to abort the Database op completely.

That way my DB does not get clogged up with unsafe statements made safe - it simply does not get clogged up which is better.

Security in layers - sanitisation and validation should still be considered in every situation BEFORE using prepared statements.

In addition as far as I can read into the official doc

"Escaping and SQL injection

Bound variables are sent to the server separately from the query and thus cannot interfere with it. The server uses these values directly at the point of execution, after the statement template is parsed. Bound parameters do not need to be escaped as they are never substituted into the query string directly"

That suggests to me that danger is avoided in the internals by alternative handling not by nullification.

This means that a large project with incomplete conversion to prepared statements, legacy code in different parts of an organisation or servers talking to one another could all pass on the bad news from an immune location or situation to one that is not immune.

As long as the sanitisation is competently performed without incurring additional risks then personally I would stick with certain layers of sanitisation and then call the prepared statements.
sam at numbsafari dot com
4 years ago
No discussion of escaping is complete without telling everyone that you should basically never use external input to generate interpreted code. This goes for SQL statements, or anything you would call any sort of "eval" function on.

So, instead of using this terribly broken function, use parametric prepared statements instead.

Honestly, using user provided data to compose SQL statements should be considered professional negligence and you should be held accountable by your employer or client for not using parametric prepared statements.

What does that mean?

It means instead of building a SQL statement like this:


You should use mysqli's prepare() function ( to execute a statement that looks like this:


NB: This doesn't mean you should never generate dynamic SQL statements. What it means is that you should never use user-provided data to generate those statements. Any user-provided data should be passed through as parameters to the statement after it has been prepared.

So, for example, if you are building up a little framework and want to do an insert to a table based on the request URI, it's in your best interest to not take the $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'] value (or any part of it) and directly concatenate that with your query. Instead,  you should parse out the portion of the $_SERVER['REQUEST_URI'] value that you want, and map that through some kind of function or associative array to a non-user provided value. If the mapping produces no value, you know that something is wrong with the user provided data.

Failing to follow this has been the cause of a number of SQL-injection problems in the Ruby On Rails framework, even though it uses parametric prepared statements. This is how GitHub was hacked at one point. So, no language is immune to this problem. That's why this is a general best practice and not something specific to PHP and why you should REALLY adopt it.

Also, you should still do some kind of validation of the data provided by users, even when using parametric prepared statements. This is because that user-provided data will often become part of some generated HTML, and you want to ensure that the user provided data isn't going to cause security problems in the browser.
strata_ranger at hotmail dot com
7 years ago
There's an interesting quirk in the example #2 about SQL injection:  AND takes priority over OR, so the injected query actually executes as WHERE (user='aidan' AND password='') OR ''='', so instead of returning a database record corresponding to an arbitrary username (in this case 'aidan'), it would actually return ALL database records.  In no particular order.  So an attacker might be able to log in as any account, but not necessarily with any control over which account it is.

Of course a potential attacker could simply modify their parameters to target specific users of interest:


// E.g. attacker's values
$_POST['username'] = '';
$_POST['password'] = "' OR user = 'administrator' AND '' = '";

// Malformed query
$query = "SELECT * FROM users WHERE user='$_POST[username]' AND password='$_POST[password]'";


// The query sent to MySQL would read:
// SELECT * FROM users WHERE user='' AND password='' OR user='administrator' AND ''='';
// which would allow anyone to gain access to the account named 'administrator'

plgs at ozemail dot com dot au
7 years ago
Don't forget that if you're using Mysqli (ie, the "improved" Mysql extension) then you need to use the corresponding mysqli function mysqli_real_escape_string().  The parameter order is also different.
presto dot dk at gmail dot com
7 years ago
If you want to make sure that the ID you're using to do a query is a number, use sprint() of (int) or intval(), but don't use mysql_real_escape_string.

There is no difference between ISO-8859-1's number 10 and UTF-8's number 10.
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