mysqli_stmt::prepare

mysqli_stmt_prepare

(PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

mysqli_stmt::prepare -- mysqli_stmt_prepareBereitet eine SQL-Anweisung zur Ausführung vor

Beschreibung

Objektorientierter Stil

public mysqli_stmt::prepare(string $query): bool

Prozeduraler Stil

mysqli_stmt_prepare(mysqli_stmt $statement, string $query): bool

Bereitet eine Anweisung zur Ausführung vor. Die Abfrage muss aus einer einzigen SQL-Anweisung bestehen.

Die Anweisungsvorlage darf null oder mehr Fragezeichen-Parametermarker (?) - auch Platzhalter genannt - enthalten. Diese Parametermarker müssen vor der Ausführung der Anweisung mittels mysqli_stmt_bind_param() an Anwendungsvariablen gebunden werden.

Hinweis:

Wenn eine Anweisung an mysqli_stmt_prepare() übergeben wird, die größer ist als die vom Server maximal erlaubte Paketgröße (max_allowed_packet), hängen die zurückgegebenen Fehlercodes davon ab, ob der MySQL Native Driver (mysqlnd) oder die MySQL Client Library (libmysqlclient) verwendet wird. Die Funktion verhält sich wie folgt:

  • mysqlnd gibt unter Linux den Fehlercode 1153 zurück. Diese Fehlermeldung bedeutet got a packet bigger than max_allowed_packet bytes.

  • mysqlnd gibt unter Windows den Fehlercode 2006 zurück. Diese Fehlermeldung bedeutet server has gone away.

  • libmysqlclient gibt auf allen Plattformen den Fehlercode 2006 zurück. Diese Fehlermeldung bedeutet server has gone away.

Parameter-Liste

statement

Nur bei prozeduralem Aufruf: ein von mysqli_stmt_init() zurückgegebenes mysqli_stmt-Objekt.

query

Die Zeichenkette mit der Abfrage. Sie darf nur eine SQL-Anweisung enthalten.

Die SQL-Anweisung darf null oder mehr Platzhalter für Parameter enthalten, die an den entsprechenden Stellen durch Fragezeichen (?) dargestellt werden.

Hinweis:

Die Platzhalter sind nur an bestimmten Stellen einer SQL-Anweisung zulässig. Zum Beispiel sind sie bei einer INSERT-Anweisung in der VALUES()-Liste erlaubt, um die Werte für die Spalten einer Zeile anzugeben, oder bei einer WHERE-Klausel im Vergleich mit einer Spalte, um einen Vergleichswert anzugeben. Nicht zulässig sind sie hingegen für Bezeichner (wie Tabellen- oder Spaltennamen).

Rückgabewerte

Gibt bei Erfolg true zurück. Bei einem Fehler wird false zurückgegeben.

Beispiele

Beispiel #1 mysqli_stmt::prepare()-Beispiel

Objektorientierter Stil

<?php

mysqli_report
(MYSQLI_REPORT_ERROR MYSQLI_REPORT_STRICT);
$mysqli = new mysqli("localhost""my_user""my_password""world");

$city "Amersfoort";

/* Vorbereitete Anweisung erstellen */
$stmt $mysqli->stmt_init();
$stmt->prepare("SELECT District FROM City WHERE Name=?");

/* Parameter für die Platzhalter binden */
$stmt->bind_param("s"$city);

/* Anfrage ausführen */
$stmt->execute();

/* Ergebnisvariablen binden */
$stmt->bind_result($district);

/* Wert abrufen */
$stmt->fetch();

printf("%s liegt im Bezirk %s\n"$city$district);

Prozeduraler Stil

<?php

mysqli_report
(MYSQLI_REPORT_ERROR MYSQLI_REPORT_STRICT);
$link mysqli_connect("localhost""my_user""my_password""world");

$city "Amersfoort";

/* Vorbereitete Anweisung erstellen */
$stmt mysqli_stmt_init($link);
mysqli_stmt_prepare($stmt"SELECT District FROM City WHERE Name=?");

/* Parameter an Platzhalter binden */
mysqli_stmt_bind_param($stmt"s"$city);

/* Anfrage ausführen */
mysqli_stmt_execute($stmt);

/* Ergebnisvariablen binden */
mysqli_stmt_bind_result($stmt$district);

/* Wert abrufen */
mysqli_stmt_fetch($stmt);

printf("%s liegt im Bezirk %s\n"$city$district);

Die obigen Bespiele erzeugen folgende Ausgabe:

Amersfoort liegt im Bezirk Utrecht

Siehe auch

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User Contributed Notes 9 notes

up
17
logos-php at kith dot org
10 years ago
Note that if you're using a question mark as a placeholder for a string value, you don't surround it with quotation marks in the MySQL query.

For example, do this:

mysqli_stmt_prepare($stmt, "SELECT * FROM foo WHERE foo.Date > ?");

Do not do this:

mysqli_stmt_prepare($stmt, "SELECT * FROM foo WHERE foo.Date > '?'");

If you put quotation marks around a question mark in the query, then PHP doesn't recognize the question mark as a placeholder, and then when you try to use mysqli_stmt_bind_param(), it gives an error to the effect that you have the wrong number of parameters.

The lack of quotation marks around a string placeholder is implicit in the official example on this page, but it's not explicitly stated in the docs, and I had trouble figuring it out, so figured it was worth posting.
up
6
logos-php at kith dot orgpp
10 years ago
Turns out you can't directly use a prepared statement for a query that has a placeholder in an IN() clause.

There are ways around that (such as constructing a string that consists of n question marks separated by commas, then using that set of placeholders in the IN() clause), but you can't just say IN (?).

This is a MySQL restriction rather than a PHP restriction, but it's not really documented in the MySQL docs either, so I figured it was worth mentioning here.

(Btw, turns out someone else had previously posted the info that I put in my previous comment, about not using quotation marks. Sorry for the repeat; not sure how I missed the earlier comment.)
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2
ndungi at gmail dot com
13 years ago
The `prepare` , `bind_param`, `bind_result`, `fetch` result, `close` stmt cycle can be tedious at times. Here is an object that does all the mysqli mumbo jumbo for you when all you want is a select leaving you to the bare essential `preparedSelect` on a prepared stmt. The method returns the result set as a 2D associative array with the `select`ed columns as keys. I havent done sufficient error-checking and it also may have some bugs. Help debug and improve on it.

I used the bible.sql db from http://www.biblesql.net/sites/biblesql.net/files/bible.mysql.gz.

Baraka tele!

============================

<?php

class DB
{
    public
$connection;
   
   
#establish db connection
   
public function __construct($host="localhost", $user="user", $pass="", $db="bible")
    {
       
$this->connection = new mysqli($host, $user, $pass, $db);
                 
        if(
mysqli_connect_errno())
        {
            echo(
"Database connect Error : "
           
. mysqli_connect_error($mysqli));
        }   
    }
   
   
#store mysqli object
   
public function connect()
    {
        return
$this->connection;
    }

   
#run a prepared query
   
public function runPreparedQuery($query, $params_r)
    {
       
$stmt = $this->connection->prepare($query);
       
$this->bindParameters($stmt, $params_r);

        if (
$stmt->execute()) {
            return
$stmt;
        } else {
            echo(
"Error in $statement: "
                     
. mysqli_error($this->connection));
            return
0;
        }
       
    }

# To run a select statement with bound parameters and bound results.
# Returns an associative array two dimensional array which u can easily 
# manipulate with array functions.

   
public function preparedSelect($query, $bind_params_r)
    {
       
$select = $this->runPreparedQuery($query, $bind_params_r);
       
$fields_r = $this->fetchFields($select);
       
        foreach (
$fields_r as $field) {
           
$bind_result_r[] = &${$field};
        }
       
       
$this->bindResult($select, $bind_result_r);
       
       
$result_r = array();
       
$i = 0;
        while (
$select->fetch()) {
            foreach (
$fields_r as $field) {
               
$result_r[$i][$field] = $$field;
            }
           
$i++;
        }
       
$select->close();
        return
$result_r;   
    }
   
   
   
#takes in array of bind parameters and binds them to result of
    #executed prepared stmt
   
   
private function bindParameters(&$obj, &$bind_params_r)
    {
       
call_user_func_array(array($obj, "bind_param"), $bind_params_r);
    }
   
    private function
bindResult(&$obj, &$bind_result_r)
    {
       
call_user_func_array(array($obj, "bind_result"), $bind_result_r);
    }
   
   
#returns a list of the selected field names
   
   
private function fetchFields($selectStmt)
    {
       
$metadata = $selectStmt->result_metadata();
       
$fields_r = array();
        while (
$field = $metadata->fetch_field()) {
           
$fields_r[] = $field->name;
        }

        return
$fields_r;
    }
}
#end of class

#An example of the DB class in use

$DB = new DB("localhost", "root", "", "bible");
$var = 5;
$query = "SELECT abbr, name from books where id > ?" ;
$bound_params_r = array("i", $var);

$result_r = $DB->preparedSelect($query, $bound_params_r);

#loop thru result array and display result

foreach ($result_r as $result) {
    echo
$result['abbr'] . " : " . $result['name'] . "<br/>" ;
}

?>
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3
andrey at php dot net
17 years ago
If you select LOBs use the following order of execution or you risk mysqli allocating more memory that actually used

1)prepare()
2)execute()
3)store_result()
4)bind_result()

If you skip 3) or exchange 3) and 4) then mysqli will allocate memory for the maximal length of the column which is 255 for tinyblob, 64k for blob(still ok), 16MByte for MEDIUMBLOB - quite a lot and 4G for LONGBLOB (good if you have so much memory). Queries which use this order a bit slower when there is a LOB but this is the price of not having memory exhaustion in seconds.
up
2
kontakt at arthur minus schiwon dot de
14 years ago
If you wrap the placeholders with quotation marks you will experience warnings like "Number of variables doesn't match number of parameters in prepared statement" (at least with INSERT Statements).
up
0
mhradek AT gmail.com
14 years ago
A particularly helpful adaptation of this function and the call_user_func_array function:

// $params is sent as array($val=>'i', $val=>'d', etc...)

function db_stmt_bind_params($stmt, $params)
{
    $funcArg[] = $stmt;
    foreach($params as $val=>$type)
    {
        $funcArg['type'] .= $type;
        $funcArg[] = $val;
    }
    return call_user_func_array('mysqli_stmt_bind_param', $funcArgs);
}

Thanks to 'sned' for the code.
up
0
st dot john dot johnson at gmail dot com
15 years ago
In reference to what lachlan76 said before, stored procedures CAN be executed through prepared statements as long as you tell the DB to move to the next result before executing again.

Example (Five calls to a stored procedure):

<?php
for ($i=0;$i<5;$i++) {
 
$statement = $mysqli->stmt_init();
 
$statement->prepare("CALL some_procedure( ? )");

 
// Bind, execute, and bind.
 
$statement->bind_param("i", 1);
 
$statement->execute();
 
$statement->bind_result($results);

  while(
$statement->fetch()) {
   
// Do what you want with your results.
 
}

 
$statement->close();

 
// Now move the mysqli connection to a new result.
 
while($mysqli->next_result()) { }
}
?>

If you include the last statement, this code should execute without the nasty "Commands out of sync" error.
up
-1
lukaszNOSPAMPLEASE at epas dot pl
14 years ago
i've got some bad news for you guys if you haven't found out already.
the trick with mysqli_next_result() only prevents having the connection dropped after a stored procedure call.
apparently you can bind parameters for a prepared stored procedure call, but you'll get messed up records from mysqli_stmt_fetch() after mysqli_stmt_bind_result(), at least when the stored procedure itself contains a prepared statement.
a way to avoid data corruption could be specifying the CLIENT_MULTI_STATEMENTS flag in mysqli_real_connect(), if it wasn't disabled entirely (for security reasons, as they say). another option is to use mysqli_multi_query(), but then you can't bind at all.
up
-1
lachlan76 at gmail dot com
16 years ago
Do not try to use a stored procedure through a prepared statement.

Example:

<?php
$statement
= $mysqli->stmt_init();
$statement->prepare("CALL some_procedure()");
?>

If you attempt to do this, it will fail by dropping the connection during the next query.  Use mysqli_multi_query instead.

Example:

<?php
$mysqli
->multi_query("CALL some_procedure()");
do
{
 
$result = $mysqli->store_result();

  
// Do your processing work here 
 
 
$result->free();
} while(
$mysqli->next_result());
?>

This means that you cannot bind parameters or results, however.
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