PHP 5.5.16 is released

session_id

(PHP 4, PHP 5)

session_idLiefert und/oder setzt die aktuelle Session-ID

Beschreibung

string session_id ([ string $id ] )

session_id() wird verwendet, um die Session-ID der aktuellen Session zu erhalten oder zu setzen.

Die Konstante SID kann auch dazu verwendet werden, den aktuellen Namen und die Session-ID als Zeichenkette passend zum Anhängen an URLs zu erhalten. Siehe auch Session Funktionen.

Parameter-Liste

id

Wenn id angegeben wird, wird die die aktuelle Session-ID ersetzt. session_id() muss zu diesem Zweck vor session_start() aufgerufen werden. In Abhängigkeit von der Session-Prozedur sind in der Session-ID nicht alle Zeichen erlaubt. Zum Beispiel erlaubt die dateibasierte Session-Prozedur nur Zeichen im Bereich a-z A-Z 0-9 , (Komma) und - (Minus)!

Hinweis: Falls Session-Cookies verwendet werden und für session_id() eine id angegeben wird, wird ungeachtet dessen, ob die aktuelle Session-ID mit der neuen identisch ist, bei jedem Aufruf von session_start() ein neues Cookie gesendet.

Rückgabewerte

session_id() gibt die Session-ID der aktuellen Session zurück oder die leere Zeichenkette (""), falls es keine aktuelle Session gibt (es existiert keine aktuelle Session-ID).

Changelog

Version Beschreibung
5.0.0 Die Zeichen , (Komma) und - (Minus) sind in der dateibasierten Session-Prozedur zulässig.

Siehe auch

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 17 notes

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3
ab at ixo point ca
3 years ago
I was perplexed by inconsistent results with the session ID depending on whether I retrieve it using SID, COOKIE, or session_id().  I have found that session_id() is the most reliable method, whereas SID and COOKIE["PHPSESSIONID"] are sometimes undefined.

I used this simple script to quickly test the problem on my servers:

<?php
$a
= session_id();
if(empty(
$a)) session_start();
echo
"SID: ".SID."<br>session_id(): ".session_id()."<br>COOKIE: ".$_COOKIE["PHPSESSID"];
?>

Regardless of browser I see the COOKIE undefined on the first load and the other two defined, then SID is empty on subsequent reloads and COOKIE is defined, but session_id() is always defined.

If I insert the session_regenerate_id() method that jeff_zamrzla gives below the refresh the page, I get a new session_id() but the COOKIE value is initially the prior session_id() until I hit refresh a second time.  So again, session_id() proves to be the most reliable method.

It's probably not a bug since I found the behaviour to be consistent in PHP versions 5.2.14, 5.3.3 and 5.3.4, but I can't figure what I'm missing and hopefully this will help others who run into this.
up
2
cbarnes at bfinity dot net
9 years ago
Note that Firefox and Mozilla use the same process for launching new windows or tabs, they will pick up the same session id as the previous windows until the parent process dies or is closed. This may cause undesired results if the session id is stored in a db and checked, a solution is to check at the new entry point (new tab or window if the user went back to the index page) for an existing session. If a session id exists and a new one is required use something like:

<?php
$ses_id
= session_id();
$bsid_exists = false;
$bsid_exists = check_session_id_from_db($ses_id);
if (
$bsid_exists){
//This is a reentry and the session already exists
// create a new session ID and start a new
session_regenerate_id();        
$ses_id = session_id();
}
?>
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0
Dario Gomes
3 years ago
Gosh, took a LOOONG time to figure this one out! If you have suhosin built into your PHP and can't get sessions to work after changing the session id through session_id(), try turning off suhosin's session encryption option in php.ini with:

suhosin.session.encrypt=Off
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-1
Axel
6 years ago
The documentation for session_id is incomplete when it says:
"For example, the file session handler only allows characters in the range a-z, A-Z and 0-9!".

It is untrue when changing the default for the session.hash_bits_per_character as Colin said. session_id may therefore contain "-" and ",".

http://fr.php.net/manual/en/session.configuration.php
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-2
Colin
7 years ago
The higher you set session.hash_bits_per_character the shorter your session_id will become by using more bits per character. The possible values are 4, 5, or 6.

When using sha-1 for hashing (by setting ini_set('session.hash_function', 1) the following session string lengths are produced by the three session.hash_bits_per_character settings:

4 - 40 character string
5 - 32 character string
6 - 27 character string

It would seem desirable to use sha-l with 5 bits_per_character because this will emulate a standard 32 character md5 string and make a would-be attacker think that is what you're hashing with.
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-2
dnaicker at gmail dot com
6 years ago
I was using session_id but i needed to send more than one variable across to another php page. I was trying to create a link to an xml file and i needed to send the name of the file to another php document to open the file using DOM or SimpleXML.

I sent the variable across in the hyperlink and gathered the variable using the $_POST['$VarName'] command.

This is the code i used:
Page1:

echo"\t\t<td><a href=\"showArticle.php?file=".$title."\" name=\"$title\">View Article</a></td>\n";

Page2:
$file = $_GET["file"];
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-3
Anonymous
7 years ago
Regarding Colin's comment, note that setting hash_bits_per_character to 5 results in characters ranging from 0-9 and a-v. Most attackers would be wise enough to realize what was going on when they saw a letter in g-v.  The probability of not seeing a letter in g-v is somewhere around 2^-32.
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-3
Andi, info at pragmaMx dot org
11 years ago
you can also add the iframe tag:
ini_set("url_rewriter.tags", "a=href,area=href,frame=src,iframe=src,input=src,form=fakeentry");
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-3
Drugelis, Lietuva
3 years ago
I had a lot of trouble with session_regenerate_id() as it did not regenerate... Session_id() stayed the same no matter what (unless closing the window). I wanted to have different sid and empty vars for each session/page meeting a condition for security reasons.  Finally, this worked:

<?php
$a
= session_id();
if (
$a == '') session_start();
if ( ...
add check if you want to regenerate and destroy vars on some condition only [recommended :)]...  )
{
session_unset(); //destroys variables
  
session_destroy() //destroys session;
}

$a = session_id();
if (
$a == '') session_start();
if (!isset(
$_SESSION['safety']))
{
   
session_regenerate_id(true);
   
$_SESSION['safety'] = true;
}
$_SESSION['sessionid'] = session_id();
?>

Now you get different sid and session variables empty for each session_start if condition is met (i.e. user hits refresh on user/password form, which I needed badly :). Hope this helps someone out there.
Env: localhost
Note: condition is mandatory, otherwise it destroys on each load.
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-3
Anonymous
8 years ago
In response to simon at quo dot com dot au:

The PHPSESSID is produced using an hash function. By default, it uses MD5 which produces 128 bits long (i.e: 16 bytes long) hashes.
But, since some bytes' values may not be used in the HTTP header, PHP outputs the hash in its hexadecimal representation, thus resulting in a 32 bytes long text.

Starting with  PHP 5.0, you can change the hash function used (by setting "session.hash_function" to whatever function you want to use in php.ini).
You may for example set it to 1 to switch to SHA-1 which produces 160 bits (20 bytes) long hashes.

Please also note that another setting was introduced in PHP 5 (session.hash_bits_per_character) which sort of "compresses" the hash. Thus, resulting in what seems to be a shorter hash.
This feature helps you improve your application's security by producing IDs that are harder to prodict for a malicious attacker.

More information on those settings is provided on:
http://www.php.net/manual/en/ref.session.php
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-4
dmeweb at dibsplace dot com
3 years ago
If you look at the notes on cookies (set_cookie I think), you will see that you can not read a cookie on the page that it is set.  That is because the cookies are sent with the page request which comes, of course, before your PHP is run.  You have to wait until the next page request from the same source to read the cookie.
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-2
simon at quo dot com dot au
8 years ago
Length of PHPSESSID appears to be 32 characters by default.
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-3
karlhaines at comcast dot net
10 years ago
Rewriting URL's is not suggested for obvious security issues. Please be careful with register_globals when using sessions! Check that all information you recieve from a user is valid before accepting it!
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-5
infinito84 at gmail dot com
5 months ago
Get a shared session.

Sometimes is good can interchange messages and vars between one session and another, but PHP dont support this. I create this script that allows with session_id() change from current session to shared session (this is, info with scope to all sessions) for read and write info and back in to user session. The code:

<?php
    ini_set
('display_errors',1);
   
error_reporting(E_ALL);
   
    function
get_global($key){
       
//Get current session
       
if(session_status()!=PHP_SESSION_ACTIVE)session_start();
       
$current_id=session_id();
       
session_write_close();
       
//Set a global session with session_id=1
       
session_id(1);
       
session_start();
       
//Get superglobal value
       
$value=null;
        if(isset(
$_SESSION[$key]))$value=$_SESSION[$key];
       
session_write_close();
       
//Set the before session
       
session_id($current_id);
       
session_start();
        return
$value;
    }
   
    function
set_global($key,$value){
       
//Get current session
       
if(session_status()!=PHP_SESSION_ACTIVE)session_start();
       
$current_id=session_id();
       
session_write_close();
       
//Set a global session with session_id=1
       
session_id(1);
       
session_start();
       
//Set superglobal value
       
$_SESSION[$key]=$value;
       
session_write_close();
       
//Set the before session
       
session_id($current_id);
       
session_start();
    }
   
//Example
    //Begin my session normally
   
session_start();
    if(empty(
$_SESSION['count'])){
       
$_SESSION['count']=0;
       
$_SESSION['color']="rgb(".rand(0,255).",".rand(0,255).",".rand(0,255).")";
    }
   
$_SESSION['count']++;
   
$id=session_id();
   
//Get the superglobal
   
$test=get_global("test");
   
//Set the superglobal test with empty array if this dont set
   
if($test==null)$test=array();
   
//Get the superglobal
   
$test=get_global("test");
   
//Set values for each reload page and save the session_id that create it
   
$test[]="<span style='color:".$_SESSION['color']."'>Value: ".rand(0,100)." SessionID: $id</span><br>";
   
//Save the superglobal
   
set_global("test",$test);
   
//Show the superglobal
   
foreach($test as $t){
        echo
$t;
    }
    echo
"<b>Reloads = ".$_SESSION['count'].", <span style='color:".$_SESSION['color']."'>This my color</span></b>";
   
    exit;
?>
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-6
jpjounier at hotmail dot com
9 years ago
About the note from Cybertinus :

The following test doesn't work, the code following is always executed :

<?php
if(!session_id())
{
// Always executed even if there's already an opened session
}

session_id() returns an empty string if there is no current session, so to test if a session already exists, it's better to write this :
if(session_id() == "")
{
session_start();
}
else
{
// Anything you want
}
?>
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-10
Francois
3 years ago
In php version 5.3.2 in my case each time a new session-id was generated after session_start() but all was working before correctly in previous versions. So I lost data from my current session (wrong session-id). There was always a $_POST or $_GET or $_COOKIE available with the session-name and session-id, so session_start() was taken this automatically. Now I have to execute session_id(..old id ..) before session_start() and a session is started for the same id.
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-11
jeff_zamrzla
9 years ago
Try this code snippet, from a book by a security expert who says this is more secure to place on every page:

<?php
session_start
();
$_SESSION['name'] = "YourSession";

if (!isset(
$_SESSION['initiated']))
{
   
session_regenerate_id();
   
$_SESSION['initiated'] = true;
}
?>
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