PHP 5.6.0 released

oci_connect

(PHP 5, PECL OCI8 >= 1.1.0)

oci_connectConnect to an Oracle database

Beschreibung

resource oci_connect ( string $username , string $password [, string $connection_string [, string $character_set [, int $session_mode ]]] )

Returns a connection identifier needed for most other OCI8 operations.

See Connection Handling for general information on connection management and connection pooling.

From PHP 5.1.2 (PECL OCI8 1.1) oci_close() can be used to close the connection.

The second and subsequent calls to oci_connect() with the same parameters will return the connection handle returned from the first call. This means that transactions in one handle are also in the other handles, because they use the same underlying database connection. If two handles need to be transactionally isolated from each other, use oci_new_connect() instead.

Parameter-Liste

username

The Oracle user name.

password

The password for username.

connection_string

Beinhaltet die Oracle-Instanz, mit der verbunden werden soll. Dies kann eine » Easy Connect Zeichenkette, ein Connect-Name aus der Datei tnsnames.ora oder der Name einer lokalen Oracle-Instanz sein.

Wenn dies nicht angegebe wird, verwendet PHP Umgebungsvariablen wie TWO_TASK (unter Linux), LOCAL (unter Windows) oder ORACLE_SID um die Oracle-Instanz mit der verbunden werden soll zu ermitteln.

Um die benannte Easy Connect Methode zu verwenden, muss PHP gegen die Clientbibliotheken von Oracle 10g oder höher gelinkt sein. Die Easy Connect Zeichenfolge für Oracle 10g hat den Aufbau: [//]host_name[:port][/service_name]. Für Oracle 11g ist die Syntax: [//]host_name[:port][/service_name][:server_type][/instance_name]. Service name kann bestimmt werden, indem man das Oracle-Hilfswerkzeug lsnrctl status auf dem Datenbankserver ausführt.

Die Datei tnsnames.ora kann sich im Oracle Net Suchpfad befinden, welcher $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin sowie /etc beinhaltet. Alternativ kann TNS_ADMIN auf einen Wert gesetzt werden, damit $TNS_ADMIN/tnsnames.ora gelesen wird. Es muss sichergestellt sein, dass der Webserver Leseberechtigung für die Datei besitzt.

character_set

Bestimmt den Zeichensatz, der von den Oracle Client Bibliotheken verwendet wird. Dieser Zeichensatz muss nicht dem von der Datenbank verwendeten Zeichensatz entsprechen. Wenn diese nicht übereinstimmen, wird Oracle bestmöglich versuchen, die Daten in den Datenbankzeichensatz zu übersetzen. Abhängig von den Zeichensätzen kann dies zu unbrauchbaren Ergebnissen führen. Diese Konvertierung führt auch zu einem erhöhten Zeitbedarf.

Falls nicht angegeben, werden die Oracle Client Bibliotheken versuchen, den Zeichensatz aus der Umgebungsvariablen NLS_LANG auszulesen.

Die Übergabe dieses Parameters verringert die Zeit für den Verbindungsaufbau.

session_mode

Dieser Parameter ist seit PHP 5 (PECL OCI8 1.1) verfügbar und akzeptiert die folgenden Werte: OCI_DEFAULT, OCI_SYSOPER und OCI_SYSDBA. Falls entweder OCI_SYSOPER oder OCI_SYSDBA angegeben wurden wird diese Funktion versuchen die priviligierte Verbindung mit externen Credentials aufzubauen. Um diese einzuschalten muss man oci8.privileged_connect auf On setzen.

PHP 5.3 (PECL OCI8 1.3.4) hat den Wert OCI_CRED_EXT eingeführt. Dies konfiguriert Oracle dazu eine externe oder Os-Authentifizierung vorzunehmen, welche in der Datenbank konfiguriert werden muss. Der Schalter OCI_CRED_EXT kann nur mit dem Benutzernamen "/" und einem leeren Passwort verwendet werden. oci8.privileged_connect kann entweder On oder Off sein.

OCI_CRED_EXT kann mit OCI_SYSOPER oder OCI_SYSDBA kombiniert werden.

OCI_CRED_EXT ist auf Windows-Systemen aus sicherheitsgründen nicht unterstützt.

Rückgabewerte

Returns a connection identifier or FALSE on error.

Beispiele

Beispiel #1 Basic oci_connect() using Easy Connect syntax

<?php

// Connects to the XE service (i.e. database) on the "localhost" machine
$conn oci_connect('hr''welcome''localhost/XE');
if (!
$conn) {
    
$e oci_error();
    
trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message'], ENT_QUOTES), E_USER_ERROR);
}

$stid oci_parse($conn'SELECT * FROM employees');
oci_execute($stid);

echo 
"<table border='1'>\n";
while (
$row oci_fetch_array($stidOCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS)) {
    echo 
"<tr>\n";
    foreach (
$row as $item) {
        echo 
"    <td>" . ($item !== null htmlentities($itemENT_QUOTES) : "&nbsp;") . "</td>\n";
    }
    echo 
"</tr>\n";
}
echo 
"</table>\n";

?>

Beispiel #2 Basic oci_connect() using a Network Connect name

<?php

// Connects to the MYDB database described in tnsnames.ora file,
// One example tnsnames.ora entry for MYDB could be:
//   MYDB =
//     (DESCRIPTION =
//       (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = mymachine.oracle.com)(PORT = 1521))
//       (CONNECT_DATA =
//         (SERVER = DEDICATED)
//         (SERVICE_NAME = XE)
//       )
//     )

$conn oci_connect('hr''welcome''MYDB');
if (!
$conn) {
    
$e oci_error();
    
trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message'], ENT_QUOTES), E_USER_ERROR);
}

$stid oci_parse($conn'SELECT * FROM employees');
oci_execute($stid);

echo 
"<table border='1'>\n";
while (
$row oci_fetch_array($stidOCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS)) {
    echo 
"<tr>\n";
    foreach (
$row as $item) {
        echo 
"    <td>" . ($item !== null htmlentities($itemENT_QUOTES) : "&nbsp;") . "</td>\n";
    }
    echo 
"</tr>\n";
}
echo 
"</table>\n";

?>

Beispiel #3 oci_connect() with an explicit character set

<?php

$conn 
oci_connect('hr''welcome''localhost/XE''AL32UTF8');
if (!
$conn) {
    
$e oci_error();
    
trigger_error(htmlentities($e['message'], ENT_QUOTES), E_USER_ERROR);
}

$stid oci_parse($conn'SELECT * FROM employees');
oci_execute($stid);

echo 
"<table border='1'>\n";
while (
$row oci_fetch_array($stidOCI_ASSOC+OCI_RETURN_NULLS)) {
    echo 
"<tr>\n";
    foreach (
$row as $item) {
        echo 
"    <td>" . ($item !== null htmlentities($itemENT_QUOTES) : "&nbsp;") . "</td>\n";
    }
    echo 
"</tr>\n";
}
echo 
"</table>\n";

?>

Beispiel #4 Using multiple calls to oci_connect()

<?php

$c1 
oci_connect("hr""welcome"'localhost/XE');
$c2 oci_connect("hr""welcome"'localhost/XE');

// Both $c1 and $c2 show the same PHP resource id meaning they use the
// same underlying database connection
echo "c1 is $c1<br>\n";
echo 
"c2 is $c2<br>\n";

function 
create_table($conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"create table hallo (test varchar2(64))");
    
oci_execute($stmt);
    echo 
"Created table<br>\n";
}

function 
drop_table($conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"drop table hallo");
    
oci_execute($stmt);
    echo 
"Dropped table<br>\n";
}

function 
insert_data($connname$conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"insert into hallo
              values(to_char(sysdate,'DD-MON-YY HH24:MI:SS'))"
);
    
oci_execute($stmtOCI_DEFAULT);
    echo 
"$connname inserted row without committing<br>\n";
}

function 
rollback($connname$conn)
{
    
oci_rollback($conn);
    echo 
"$connname rollback<br>\n";
}

function 
select_data($connname$conn)
{
    
$stmt oci_parse($conn"select * from hallo");
    
oci_execute($stmtOCI_DEFAULT);
    echo 
"$connname ----selecting<br>\n";
    while (
oci_fetch($stmt)) {
        echo 
"    " oci_result($stmt"TEST") . "<br>\n";
    }
    echo 
"$connname ----done<br>\n";
}

create_table($c1);

insert_data('c1'$c1);   // Insert a row using c1
sleep(2);                 // sleep to show a different timestamp for the 2nd row
insert_data('c2'$c2);   // Insert a row using c2

select_data('c1'$c1);   // Results of both inserts are returned
select_data('c2'$c2);   // Results of both inserts are returned

rollback('c1'$c1);      // Rollback using c1

select_data('c1'$c1);   // Both inserts have been rolled back
select_data('c2'$c2);

drop_table($c1);

// Closing one of the connections makes the PHP variable unusable, but
// the other could be used
oci_close($c1);
echo 
"c1 is $c1<br>\n";
echo 
"c2 is $c2<br>\n";


// Output is:
//    c1 is Resource id #5
//    c2 is Resource id #5
//    Created table
//    c1 inserted row without committing
//    c2 inserted row without committing
//    c1 ----selecting
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:43
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:45
//    c1 ----done
//    c2 ----selecting
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:43
//        09-DEC-09 12:14:45
//    c2 ----done
//    c1 rollback
//    c1 ----selecting
//    c1 ----done
//    c2 ----selecting
//    c2 ----done
//    Dropped table
//    c1 is 
//    c2 is Resource id #5

?>

Anmerkungen

Hinweis:

An incorrectly installed or configured OCI8 extension will often manifest itself as a connection problem or error. See Installing/Configuring for troubleshooting information.

Siehe auch

add a note add a note

User Contributed Notes 12 notes

up
4
M0no at ethonfusino dot com
11 years ago
If your oracle database is on a remote system within your local network and you don't want to worry about the tnsnames file you can try this.

$db = "(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.XX.XXX)(PORT = 1521)))(CONNECT_DATA=(SID=XXXX)))";

$c1 = ocilogon("name","password",$db);

Hope this helps someone.
up
1
Leandro da Cunha Campos
5 years ago
ONE ALTERNATIVE OF CONNECT IN ORACLE RAC "Real Application Clusters"

<?php
$dbstr
="(DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =ip1)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = banco)
(INSTANCE_NAME = banco1)))"
;

$dbstr1 ="(DESCRIPTION =(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST =ip2)(PORT = 1521))
(CONNECT_DATA =
(SERVER = DEDICATED)
(SERVICE_NAME = banco)
(INSTANCE_NAME = banco2)))"
;

if(!@(
$conn = oci_connect('user','password',$dbstr1)))
{
$conn = oci_connect('user','password',$dbstr) or die (ocierror()); }
?>
up
1
ben at onshop dot co dot uk
9 years ago
There is a useful solution to the problem of securing connection information in the PHP Cookbook (O'Reilly) by David Sklar and Adam Trachtenberg. They propose using 'SetEnv' in the Apache configuration and then accessing the values from within a script using $_SERVER.

Unfortunately using the 'SetEnv' solution exposes your connection information to all users of that virtual host. If they run phpinfo.php or display $_SERVER, I found that they will see the password from any file under the root of that virtual host.

To restrict exposure to a particular directory or specific file:

1. First put an 'Include' to the secret file in httpd.conf. For example:

Include "/web/private/secret.txt"

2. In the password file, use the 'SetEnvIf' directive to enable the Environment variables by directory only or within a specific file. For example:

- For all files in the directory:

SetEnvIf Request_URI "/path/to/my/directory" ORACLE_PASS=5gHj790j

- For a specific file in the directory

SetEnvIf Request_URI "/path/to/my/directory/connection.oracle.php" ORACLE_PASS=5gHj790j
up
0
peter at goldthorp dot com
3 years ago
I started getting "ORA-12514: TNS:listener does not currently know of service requested in connect descriptor" errors when I upgraded my database instance from 10.2 to 11.2.  For some reason it would not resolve the oci_connect calls with the Easy Connect syntax (easy connect calls from sqlplus were fine).  I was able to workaround the issue by passing a tns connect string:

<?php
$db
= "(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS_LIST = (ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL = TCP)(HOST = 192.168.XX.XXX)(PORT = 1521)))(CONNECT_DATA=(SID=XXXX)))";

$c1 = oci_connect("name","password",$db);
?>
up
0
jtacon at php dot net
3 years ago
If you upgrades the OCI8, be sure to use the latest oracle instantclient version, otherwise you can receive an "ORA-24315: illegal attribute type" when trying to connect due to incompatibility with some versions.

HTH,
Javier Tacón
up
0
drew dot carmichael at gmail dot com
5 years ago
When using the OCI_CRED_EXT in php
if the ENV $ORACLE_SID is set the DB does not need to be specified explicitly and the connection will fail unless you provide a NULL DB value when creating the connection.

The $ORACLE_SID trumps the TNS name look up for the connection. So even a manual connection string in the DB parameter will fail.

So when the $ORACLE_SID Env is set a NULL passed instead of the DB name connects successfully.

Hope this saves some hair pulling when moving to %.3 and OS Authentications
up
0
sixd at php dot net
6 years ago
If you want to specify a connection timeout in case there is network problem, you can edit the client side (e.g. PHP side) sqlnet.ora file and set SQLNET.OUTBOUND_CONNECT_TIMEOUT. This sets the upper time limit for establishing a connection right through to the DB, including the time for attempts to connect to other services.   It is available from Oracle 10.2.0.3 onwards.

In Oracle 11.1, a slightly lighter-weight solution TCP.CONNECT_TIMEOUT was introduced.  It also is a sqlnet.ora parameter.  It bounds just the TCP connection establishment time, which is mostly where connection problem are seen.

The client sqlnet.ora file should be put in the same directory as the tnsnames.ora file.
up
0
sebastien.barbieri _at_ gmail dot com
7 years ago
When you are using Oracle 9.2+ I would say that you MUST use the CHARSET parameter.

Of course, you will not notice it until there is accented character... so just specify it and you will avoid a big headache.

So for example here is our Oracle internal conf:
select * from nls_database_parameters;

PARAMETER                      VALUE
------------------------------ ----------------------------------------

NLS_LANGUAGE                   AMERICAN
NLS_TERRITORY                  AMERICA
NLS_ISO_CURRENCY               AMERICA
NLS_CHARACTERSET               WE8ISO8859P15


And there our oci_connect call:

$dbch=ocilogon($user,$pass,$connectString,"WE8ISO8859P15");

Without that, you will get question mark (inversed), squares… instead of most accented character.

Don’t forget to use that for writing as well as for reading.
up
-1
Anonymous
2 years ago
How to connect from PHP to an Oracle database using OID (Oracle Internet Directory):

OID is like a lookup index that contains connection strings for connecting to various databases. Without OID, a database connection string would be stored directly in the code settings and used by the PHP code to connect to a database. With OID, a lookup can be made to the OID LDAP to acquire the database connection string. Then the PHP code will use the acquired database connection string to connect to the database as before.

OID allows a DBA to manage/change which database server that an application uses without having to change any database settings in the PHP application itself or on the application server.

Here are the basic steps for PHP to connect to a database via OID:

- The DBA should provide you the connection information for the OID LDAP as well as the username/password for the database connection.
- Connect to the OID LDAP using the provided information
- Search for the appropriate LDAP record
- Get the connection string data from the record attribute, \&quot;orclnetdescstring\&quot;
- Close the LDAP connection
- Use the acquired connection string data to connect to the database as usual using the provided database username/password.

Here is basic sample code to do this:

// Get connection string from OID LDAP

    $ds=ldap_connect($servername,$serverport); // Connect to ldap
    $r=ldap_bind($ds); // Bind to ldap
    $sr = ldap_search($ds, \&quot;cn=OracleContext,dc=___,dc=___,dc=___\&quot;, \&quot;cn=$sid\&quot;); // Run query
    $info = ldap_get_entries($ds, $sr); // Get entries
    ldap_close($ds); // Close connection

    $dbconnectstring = $info[0][\&quot;orclnetdescstring\&quot;][0]; // Extract db connect string from ldap search result array

// Connect to database using acquired connection string from OID

    $dbconnection = oci_connect ($username,$password,$dbconnectstring);
up
-1
Jonathon Robinson
4 years ago
Regarding the following statement in the documentation:
"The second and subsequent calls to oci_connect() with the same parameters will return the connection handle returned from the first call."

There's one caveat here.  Subsequent calls to oci_connect() will only return the same connection handle as the first call as long as a reference is held to the original handle.

For example, the following code will generate *one* connection handle:

<?php
$dbh
= oci_connect($username, $password, $conn_info);
// Do stuff
$dbh = oci_connect$username, $password, $conn_info);
// Do more stuff

The follow code will generate *two* connection handles:
getData();
// Do stuff
getData();
// Do more stuff

getData() {
   
$dbh = oci_connect($username, $password, $conn_info);
   
// Do stuff
}
?>

This is the result of PHP garbage collecting the handle at the end of the method scope.

If you want to isolate your DB layer through function calls but still want to leverage the fact that oci_connect can return the same handle, just keep a reference to the handle like so:

<?php
getData
($username, $password, $conn_info) {
   
$dbh = oci_connect($username, $password, $conn_info);
   
$key = hash('md5', "$username|$password|$conn_info");
   
$GLOBALS[$key] = $dbh;
   
// Do stuff
}
?>

I originally logged this as a bug but apparently this is the expected behaviour, likely because oci_close($dbh) just calls unset($dbh).
up
-2
blake dot lewis at gmail dot com
1 year ago
Using ldap for Oracle name resolution:

  The web server will need the environmental variable TNS_ADMIN='Directory of tnsname.ora' unless the default location is used. I use '/etc/tns_admin'. Confirm using the phpinfo().

  There are three files needed in the TNS_ADMIN location: tnsnames.ora, sqlnet.ora and ldap.ora. If you are only using ldap, tnsnames.ora is not needed.

  To sqlnet.ora add:
     NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(TNSNAMES,LDAP)

  To ldap.ora add:
     DIRECTORY_SERVERS=(ldap_server_fqdn:port)
     DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT=""
     DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE=OID

  For a quick and dirty ldap tnsnames server use tnsManager by Dave Berry. Oracle OID or Openldap can used, but are complicated to setup. tnsManager is a no brainer. The quick part: give it a tnsnames.ora file and start it up. The dirty parts: I can't get Toad and SQLDeveloper to work with it, it ignores the domain and it is no longer being maintained.

  The order of values in NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH in sqlnet.ora determines which look up 'adapter' is used, in this case it is tnsnames.ora file and then ldap. I use ldap for general consumption and tnsnames.ora file to override ldap or entries that are not for general consumption.

  If you have the full Oracle client you have tnsping. 'tnsping ORACLE_SID' will tell you what adapter you are using: 'Used LDAP adapter to resolve the alias'.

<?php
 
echo system("/PATH/tnsping ".$ORACLE_SID." 2>&1")."<br />";
  echo
'TNS_ADMIN='.getenv('TNS_ADMIN');
?>

ISSUE:
  If connecting with only ORACLE_SID and not ORACLE_SID.DB_DOMAIN, the value of NAMES.DEFAULT_DOMAIN from sqlnet.ora is appended, then for some reason PHP tries the HOSTNAME adapter, and if the database name resolves in DNS, it will fail connecting using the database name as the hostname, because neither SID nor SERVICE_NAME are defined.
  If using tnsManager append '.ANY_DOMAIN' to $ORACLE_SID to hack around the issue above.

  I have tested with:
       11.1.0.7 full client and PHP 5.1.6
       11.2.0.2 full client and PHP 5.4.11

  I have heard that LDAP lookup does not work with older instantclients.
up
-3
blake dot lewis at gmail dot com
1 year ago
Using ldap for Oracle name resolution:

  The web server needs the environmental variable TNS_ADMIN='Directory of tnsname.ora'. I use '/etc/tns_admin'. Confirm using the phpinfo() function.

  There are three files needed in the TNS_ADMIN location: tnsnames.ora, sqlnet.ora and ldap.ora. If you are only using ldap, tnsnames.ora is not needed.

  To sqlnet.ora add:
     NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH=(TNSNAMES,LDAP)

  To ldap.ora add:
     DIRECTORY_SERVERS=(ldap_fqdn_hostname:1575)
     DEFAULT_ADMIN_CONTEXT=""
     DIRECTORY_SERVER_TYPE=OID

  For a quick and dirty ldap tnsnames server use tnsManager by Dave Berry. Oracle OID or Openldap can used, but are complicated to setup. tnsManager is a no brainer. The default port is 1575.

  The order of values in NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH from sqlnet.ora determines which look up 'adapter' is used first, in this case it is tnsnames.ora file and then ldap. I use ldap for general consumption and tnsnames.ora file to override ldap or entries that are not for general consumption.

  If you have the full Oracle client you have tnsping. 'tnsping ORACLE_SID' will tell you what adapter you are using: 'Used LDAP adapter to resolve the alias'.

<?php
 
echo system("/PATH/tnsping ".$ORACLE_SID." 2>&1")."<br />";
  echo
'TNS_ADMIN='.getenv('TNS_ADMIN');
?>

ISSUE:
  For some reason PHP tries the HOSTNAME adapter first, and if the database name resolves in DNS, it will try connecting using the database name as the hostname with no SID or SERVICE_NAME defined. All other Oracle clients I have used will not try the HOSTNAME adapter unless it is listed in NAMES.DIRECTORY_PATH.
  I have heard that LDAP look up does not work with older instantclients.
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